VTA verbs have forms corresponding to Direct, Inverse, You-Me, Me-You and Passive construction patterns.
Conjunct forms do not use prefixes. The endings indicate who is participating in the action.
The VTA conjunct has the same four modes as other verb types:
Changed Conjunct (CC) VTA specific conjunct endings, with inital change (a => ee u=> ee) Changed Subjunctive Conjunct (CSC) mode adds (-e) to the endings, with initial change. Subjunctive Conjunct Mode (CC) Adds (-e) to regular conjunct endings but without initial change Participles VTA specific conjunct endings, with inital change
This chapter assumes one has become familiar with the various modes of the conjunct from the study of prior chapters. Examples of conjugated forms using all conjunct modes will be provided. There will be a separate chapter dedicated to the VTA participles however. The bulk of this chapter will be devoted to the manner of forming VTA conjunct forms.
VTA Direct Conjunct
The conjunct endings for VTAs in direct mode are called the ‘at’ endings. The (aa) direction marker is only apparent in the 3rd person forms, and in all the negative conjunct forms.
|(stem)-aat||He or She —|
|(stem)-eengw||We — (exclusive)|
|(stem)-eengw||We — (inclusive)|
|(stem)-und||There is —|
Neeweew vta see s.o.
néewak néewat néewaat néeweengw néeweekw neewáhtiit x néewund
Mba éenda-kihkulóolaat. I came when he was talking to him. (changed conjunct) Éenda-neewáke iiyaach wuskiilunúwuw. When I saw him he was still a young man. (changed subjunctive conjunct) Ápih láapii mbaam ngata-neewáke. I'll be back if I want to see him. (subjunctive conjunct)
VTA Stems Ending in (aw) or (uw) + (und)
|(stem-aw)-und||(stem)oond||kulústaweew||kulusutoond||He was listened to|
|(stem-uw)-und||(stem)oond||péeshuweew||péeshoond||He was brought|
|(stem-x)-und||(stem)xoond||kxweew||kxoond||He was feared|
VTA Stems with ”hidden” (hw) or (sw) + (und)
Éenda-lóosoond. When he was burned. lóoseew burn s.o. (loosw) Éenda-páhthoond. When he was hit by accident. (pahtahw)ee+w
Stems ending in (-aw)
(stem-aw)-und => (stem)-oond Punóond. He was shown.
Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum I
VTA Negative Conjunct Mode – Direct
|mah (stem)-aawak||I — not|
|mah (stem)-aawat||You — not|
|mah (stem)-aakw||He or She — not|
|mah (stem)-aaweengw||We — not (exclusive)|
|mah (stem)-aaweengw||We — not (inclusive)|
|mah (stem)-aaweekw||Ye — not|
|mah (stem)-aahtiikw||They — not|
|not attested||not attested|
mah neewáawak mah neewáawat mah néewaakw mah neewáaweengw mah neewáaweekw mah neewáhtiikw x not attested
(stem)-(aa) + (w) + (conjunct ending)
Note the 3rd person negatives (-aakw) and (-aahtiikw)
(wk) word final clusters tend to morph to =>(kw)
Mba éenda-mah-kihkulooláawaat. I came when he was not talking to him. (changed conjunct) Mah ápih láapii mbáawu mah ngáta-neewáawaku. I will not be back if I don’t want to see him. (subjunctive)
Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum II
VTA Conjunct Local Me-You Forms
The You-Me and Me-You conjunct forms use the (ii) theme sign followed by the ‘an’ endings, the same ones used for the VAI conjunct.
Forms using the direction marker (ii) form the conjunct as if they were VAIs ending in (ii) and those using the marker (ul) conjugate as if a consonant ending VAI.
|I —— you||(stem)-ul-an||mah (stem)-ul-oowan|
|I —— ye||(stem)-ul-eekw||mah (stem)-ul-ooweekw|
|We —-you||(stem)-ul-eengw||mah (stem)-ul-ooweengw|
|We —- ye||(stem)-ul-eengw||mah (stem)-ul-ooweengw|
Néewŭlan I see you Néewŭleekw I see ye Néewŭleengw We see you or ye Mah neewŭlóowan I see you not Mah neewŭlóoweekw I see ye not Mah neewŭlóoweengw We see you or ye not Peew éenda-kihkulóolŭlan. He came when I was talking to you. (changed conjunct) Éenda-neewŭléekwe iiyaach kooskiilunuwihmwa. When I saw ye, ye were still young men. (changed subjunctive conjunct) Ápih láapii mbáhna ngáta-neewŭléengwe. We'll be back if we want to see you. (subjunctive)
Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum III
VTA Conjunct Local You-Me Forms
The direction marker (ii) requires an intercalated (y) before the vowel initial conjunct endings (an) (eengw) and (eekw). The vowels shift as usual:
(ii) + (y) + (an) => (uyan)
|You — me||(stem)-uyan||mah (stem)-iiwan|
|Ye — me||(stem)-uyeekw||mah (stem)-iiweekw|
|You — us||(stem)-uyeengw||mah (stem)-iiweengw|
|Ye — us||(stem)-uyeengw||mah (stem)-iiweengw|
Néewŭyan You see me Néewŭyeekw Ye see me Néewŭyeengw You or ye see me Mah neewíiwan You see me not Mah neewíiweekw Ye see me not Mah neewíiweengw You or ye see me not
VTA Conjunct He-Me Forms
|He — me||(stem)-ii-t||mah (stem)-ii-kw|
|They (animate) — me||(stem)-ii-htiit||mah (stem)-ii-tiikw|
|X — me or (I was –)||(stem)-ii-ng||not attested|
éewiit He sees me Mah néewiikw He sees me not Néewiing I was seen Neewíhtiikw They see me Mah neewíhtiikw They see me not
These ‘additional forms’ using the direction marker (ii) are unique to the VTA conjunct. These forms will be repeated further down in the charts for the conjunct inverse forms, where this form uses (ii) instead of the expected (ukw). The inanimate version of this form, it – me forms as expected with (ukw) + (aan) The direction marker (ii) should still be considered an inverse marker for obviation marking purposes.
Wéetŭmu-péeshuwíiyan. While you brought me. Éenda-ahwáaliing. When I am loved. Nooleelúndam éendxun-pŭnóolan. I am happy everytime I look at you. (eendxun PV everytime) (punaweew vta look at s.o.) Do I love you because you're beautiful? Are you beautiful because I love you? Nii ha ktahwáalul éeli-wulsúyan? Kii ha kóolsi éeli-ahwáalŭlan?
Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum IV
VTA Animate and Inanimate Subject Inverse Conjunct Mode
|(stem)-ukwaan*||He, it, or they — me|
|(stem)-ukwan||He, it, or they — you|
|(stem)-ukwuk||He, it, or they — him / her|
|(stem)-ukweengw||He, it, or they — us (exclusive)|
|(stem)-ukweengw||he,they;it,they — us (inclusive)|
|(stem)-ukweekw||He, it, or they — ye|
|(stem)-ukóhtiit||He, it, or they — them|
* One may also use these alternatives:
|(stem)-iit||He — me|
|(stem)-íhtiit||They (animate) — me|
Remarks on the Algonquian Independent Indicative Author(s): Ives Goddard Source: International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 40, No. 4, (Oct., 1974), pp. 317-327 Published by: The University of Chicago Press
Neeweew see s.o.
Néewŭkwaan or néewiit He saw me Néewŭkwan He saw you Néewŭkwuk He (obv) saw him Néewŭkweengw He saw us Néewŭkweekw He saw ye Néewŭkóhtiit He (obv) saw them Neewíhtiit They saw me
Tumushookwáane If it cuts me Éenda-punookwáane ngáta-alúmsi. When he looked at me I wanted to leave. (changed subjunctive conjunct) Móxa ngihkulóolaaw éenda-punóokwaan. I talk to her a lot when she looks at me. (changed conjunct) Neewíite ngáta-alúmsi uch. If he sees me I will want to leave.
Negative inverse mode conjunct forms are formed regularly:
(ukw)+(oo-w-an) => ukoowan
(ukw)+(oo-w-uk) => ukookw => ukookw
The weak (u) in ukw often drops when preceded by long vowel.
VTA Negative Animate and Inanimate Subject Inverse Conjunct Mode
|mah (stem)-ukoowaan*||He, it, or they — me not|
|mah (stem)-ukoowan||He, it, or they — you not|
|mah (stem)-ukookw||He, it, or they — him / her not|
|mah (stem)-ukooweengw||He, it, or they — us not (exclusive)|
|mah (stem)-ukooweengw||He, it, or they — us not (inclusive)|
|mah (stem)-ukooweekw||He, it, or they — ye not|
|mah (stem)-ukóhtiikw||He, it, or they — them not|
* One may also use these alternatives:
|mah (stem)-iikw||He — me not|
|mah (stem)-íhtiikw||They (animate) — me not|
Neeweew vta see s.o.
Mah neewŭkóowaan or mah néewiikw Mah neewŭkóowan Mah néewŭkookw Mah neewŭkóoweengw Mah neewŭkóoweekw Mah neewŭkóhtiikw Éenda-mah-punookoowáane ngáta-alúmsi. When he did not look at me I wanted to leave. (changed subjunctive conjunct) Ndáalu-kihkulóolaaw éenda-mah-punookóowaan. I can't talk to her when she doesn't look at me. (changed conjunct) Mah neewíikwe ngáta-alúmsi uch. If he does not see me I will want to leave.
Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum V
VTA Indefinite Subject Conjunct Mode
Indefinite subject forms for the VTA conjunct form regularly using (ukee) followed by conjunct endings of the ‘an’ endings set with appropriate morphosyntatic modifications. These are the same endings used for the VAI conjunct.
ukee + an endngs (ukee + y + an = ukayan)
The 1st person forms may be formed using (ukee) or by using the (ii) direction marker as described earlier: (ii) – (ung) => (stem)-(iing).
As is the case for the indicative mode passives, the 3rd person forms are formed using the X form of the direct mode paradigm: (stem)-(und).
|(stem)-ukayaan*||I was —-|
|(stem)-ukayan||You were —-|
|(stem)-und||He was —-|
|(stem)-ukayeengw||We (exclusive) were —-|
|(stem)-ukayeengw||We (inclusive) were —-|
|(stem)-ukayeekw||Ye were —-|
|(stem)-und||They were —–|
* One may also use this alternative:
|(stem)-iing||I was —-|
Neewŭkáyaan or néewiing I was seen Neewŭkáyan You were seen Néewund He was seen. Neewŭkáyeengw We were seen Neewŭkáyeekw Ye were seen Néewund They were seen Ápih neewíinge. x-me with iing If I am seen. Moxkaakayáane. If I am found. (x-me with ukee-y-aan)
VTA Negative Indefinite Subject Conjunct Mode
|mah (stem)-ukeewaan*||I was not —-|
|mah (stem)-ukeewan||You were not —-|
|not attested||He was not —-|
|mah (stem)-ukeeweengw||We (exclusive) were not —-|
|mah (stem)-ukeeweengw||We (inclusive) were not —-|
|mah (stem)-ukeeweekw||Ye were not —-|
|not attested||They were not —–|
* or mah (stem)-iiwiing
Mah neewŭkéewaan Mah neewŭkéewan ---- Mah neewŭkéeweengw Mah neewŭkéeweekw ---
More examples with varied preverbs
Neeka peew weetumu-mhwaahtiit ohpunal. She came in while they were eating potatoes. mhweew vta eat s.o. Eenda-namongwáalak When I dreamt of her [namongwáaleew dream about s.o] Peeshuwaawáawal nam
íhaat amóoxool. He brought the fish, before he finished cleaning the boat. kiish- pv completed action piilíheew clean s.o. péeshuweew bring s.o. amóoxool na boat Taa lukíhkwi póondhaat lunuw? How much does the man weigh? poondheew weigh s.o. lukíhkwi pc extent, volume, amount Ta eelkih-ahwaaluyaan? How much do you love me? eelkih- pv certain amount, certain extent + conjunct Eenda-oxkweew-manihlate When a woman dies (changed subjunctive conjunct) Nah weemáane When I left from there (changed subjunctive conjunct) Eenda-néewake When I saw him (changed subjunctive conjunct)
When used alone with uch (future) the subjunctive conjunct mode furnishes 3rd person imperatives:
Peechuwaate-uch Let him bring him Neewkwaane-uch Let him see me
Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum VI