VTA Conjunct Mode

VTA verbs have forms corresponding to Direct, Inverse, You-Me, Me-You and Passive construction patterns.

Conjunct forms do not use prefixes. The endings indicate who is participating in the action.

The VTA conjunct has the same four modes as other verb types:

Changed Conjunct (CC)   
VTA specific conjunct endings, with inital change   
(a => ee  u=> ee)  

Changed Subjunctive Conjunct (CSC) mode   
adds (-e) to the endings, with initial change.  

Subjunctive Conjunct Mode (CC)  
Adds  (-e) to regular conjunct endings but without initial change 

VTA specific conjunct endings, with inital change  

This chapter assumes one has become familiar with the various modes of the conjunct from the study of prior chapters. Examples of conjugated forms using all conjunct modes will be provided. There will be a separate chapter dedicated to the VTA participles however. The bulk of this chapter will be devoted to the manner of forming VTA conjunct forms.

VTA Direct Conjunct

The conjunct endings for VTAs in direct mode are called the ‘atendings. The (aa) direction marker is only apparent in the 3rd person forms, and in all the negative conjunct forms.

Basic paradigm Meaning
(stem)-ak I —
(stem)-at You —
(stem)-aat He or She —
(stem)-eengw We — (exclusive)
(stem)-eengw We — (inclusive)
(stem)-eekw Ye —
(stem)-áhtiit They —
(stem)-und There is —

Neeweew vta see s.o.

x  néewund


Mba éenda-kihkulóolaat.
I came when he was talking to him.
(changed conjunct)

Éenda-neewáke iiyaach wuskiilunúwuw.  
When I saw him he was still a young man.  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)   

Ápih láapii mbaam ngata-neewáke.  
I'll be back if I want to see him.  
(subjunctive conjunct)  

VTA Stems Ending in (aw) or (uw) + (und)

Structure Inflection Result Example Inflected Meaning
(stem-aw)-und (stem)oond kulústaweew kulusutoond He was listened to
(stem-uw)-und (stem)oond péeshuweew péeshoond He was brought
(stem-x)-und (stem)xoond kxweew kxoond He was feared

VTA Stems with ”hidden” (hw) or (sw) + (und)

Medial Meaning Stem Contraction Example
ahw tool (stem-ahw)-und (stem-ah)oond páhtheew
ushw cutting (stem-ushw)-und (stem-ush)oond tumúsheew
usw heat (stem-usw)-und (stem-us)oond lóoseew
When he was burned.  
lóoseew burn s.o. (loosw)  

When he was hit by accident.  

Stems ending in (-aw)

(stem-aw)-und => (stem)-oond  

He was shown.  

Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum I

VTA Negative Conjunct Mode – Direct

Paradigm Meaning
mah (stem)-aawak I — not
mah (stem)-aawat You — not
mah (stem)-aakw He or She — not
mah (stem)-aaweengw We — not (exclusive)
mah (stem)-aaweengw We — not (inclusive)
mah (stem)-aaweekw Ye — not
mah (stem)-aahtiikw They — not
not attested not attested


mah neewáawak    
mah neewáawat  
mah néewaakw     
mah neewáaweengw      
mah neewáaweekw     
mah neewáhtiikw      
x  not attested

(stem)-(aa) + (w) + (conjunct ending)
Note the 3rd person negatives (-aakw) and (-aahtiikw)
(wk) word final clusters tend to morph to =>(kw)

Mba éenda-mah-kihkulooláawaat.
I came when he was not talking to him.
(changed conjunct)

Mah ápih láapii mbáawu mah ngáta-neewáawaku.
I will not be back if I don’t want to see him.

Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum II

VTA Conjunct Local Me-You Forms

The You-Me and Me-You conjunct forms use the (ii) theme sign followed by the ‘an’ endings, the same ones used for the VAI conjunct.
Forms using the direction marker (ii) form the conjunct as if they were VAIs ending in (ii) and those using the marker (ul) conjugate as if a consonant ending VAI.

Participants Paradigm Negative Paradigm
I —— you (stem)-ul-an mah (stem)-ul-oowan
I —— ye (stem)-ul-eekw mah (stem)-ul-ooweekw
We —-you (stem)-ul-eengw mah (stem)-ul-ooweengw
We —- ye (stem)-ul-eengw mah (stem)-ul-ooweengw


I see you  

I see ye  

We see you or ye  

Mah neewŭlóowan       
I see you not  

Mah neewŭlóoweekw     
I see ye not  

Mah neewŭlóoweengw    
We see you or ye not  

Peew éenda-kihkulóolŭlan.  
He came when I was talking to you.  
(changed conjunct)  

Éenda-neewŭléekwe iiyaach kooskiilunuwihmwa.  
When I saw ye, ye were still young men.  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)   

Ápih láapii mbáhna ngáta-neewŭléengwe.   
We'll be back if we want to see you.  

Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum III

VTA Conjunct Local You-Me Forms

The direction marker (ii) requires an intercalated (y) before the vowel initial conjunct endings (an) (eengw) and (eekw). The vowels shift as usual:
(ii) + (y) + (an) => (uyan)

Participants Paradigm Negative Paradigm
You — me (stem)-uyan mah (stem)-iiwan
Ye — me (stem)-uyeekw mah (stem)-iiweekw
You — us (stem)-uyeengw mah (stem)-iiweengw
Ye — us (stem)-uyeengw mah (stem)-iiweengw
You see me  

Ye see me  

You or ye see me   

Mah neewíiwan      
You see me not  

Mah neewíiweekw        
Ye see me not  

Mah neewíiweengw       
You or ye see me not  

VTA Conjunct He-Me Forms

Participants Paradigm Negative Paradigm
He — me (stem)-ii-t mah (stem)-ii-kw
They (animate) — me (stem)-ii-htiit mah (stem)-ii-tiikw
X — me or (I was –) (stem)-ii-ng not attested
He sees me   

Mah néewiikw       
He sees me not  

I was seen  

They see me  

Mah neewíhtiikw    
They see me not

These ‘additional forms’ using the direction marker (ii) are unique to the VTA conjunct. These forms will be repeated further down in the charts for the conjunct inverse forms, where this form uses (ii) instead of the expected (ukw). The inanimate version of this form, it – me forms as expected with (ukw) + (aan) The direction marker (ii) should still be considered an inverse marker for obviation marking purposes.

While you brought me.  

When I am loved.  

Nooleelúndam éendxun-pŭnóolan.  
I am happy everytime I look at you.  
(eendxun PV everytime) 
(punaweew vta look at s.o.)  

Do I love you because you're beautiful?   
Are you beautiful because I love you?  

Nii ha ktahwáalul éeli-wulsúyan?  
Kii ha kóolsi éeli-ahwáalŭlan?   

Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum IV

VTA Animate and Inanimate Subject Inverse Conjunct Mode

Paradigm Meaning
(stem)-ukwaan* He, it, or they — me
(stem)-ukwan He, it, or they — you
(stem)-ukwuk He, it, or they — him / her
(stem)-ukweengw He, it, or they — us (exclusive)
(stem)-ukweengw he,they;it,they — us (inclusive)
(stem)-ukweekw He, it, or they — ye
(stem)-ukóhtiit He, it, or they — them

* One may also use these alternatives:

(stem)-iit He — me
(stem)-íhtiit They (animate) — me

Remarks on the Algonquian Independent Indicative Author(s): Ives Goddard Source: International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 40, No. 4, (Oct., 1974), pp. 317-327 Published by: The University of Chicago Press

Neeweew see s.o.

Néewŭkwaan or néewiit    
He saw me  

He saw you  

He (obv) saw him  

He saw us  

He saw ye  

He (obv) saw them  

They saw me  

Other examples

If it cuts me  

Éenda-punookwáane ngáta-alúmsi.  
When he looked at me I wanted to leave.  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)  

Móxa ngihkulóolaaw éenda-punóokwaan.  
I talk to her a lot when she looks at me.   
(changed conjunct)  

Neewíite ngáta-alúmsi uch.  
If he sees me I will want to leave.   

Negative inverse mode conjunct forms are formed regularly:
(ukw)+(oo-w-an) => ukoowan
(ukw)+(oo-w-uk) => ukookw => ukookw

The weak (u) in ukw often drops when preceded by long vowel.

VTA Negative Animate and Inanimate Subject Inverse Conjunct Mode

Paradigm Meaning
mah (stem)-ukoowaan* He, it, or they — me not
mah (stem)-ukoowan He, it, or they — you not
mah (stem)-ukookw He, it, or they — him / her not
mah (stem)-ukooweengw He, it, or they — us not (exclusive)
mah (stem)-ukooweengw He, it, or they — us not (inclusive)
mah (stem)-ukooweekw He, it, or they — ye not
mah (stem)-ukóhtiikw He, it, or they — them not

* One may also use these alternatives:

mah (stem)-iikw He — me not
mah (stem)-íhtiikw They (animate) — me not

Neeweew vta see s.o.

Mah neewŭkóowaan or mah néewiikw  
Mah neewŭkóowan  
Mah néewŭkookw  
Mah neewŭkóoweengw 
Mah neewŭkóoweekw  
Mah neewŭkóhtiikw  

Éenda-mah-punookoowáane ngáta-alúmsi.  
When he did not look at me I wanted to leave.  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)  

Ndáalu-kihkulóolaaw éenda-mah-punookóowaan.  
I can't talk to her  when she doesn't look at me.   
(changed conjunct)  

Mah neewíikwe ngáta-alúmsi uch.  
If he does not see me I will want to leave.   

Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum V

VTA Indefinite Subject Conjunct Mode

Indefinite subject forms for the VTA conjunct form regularly using (ukee) followed by conjunct endings of the ‘an’ endings set with appropriate morphosyntatic modifications. These are the same endings used for the VAI conjunct.

ukee + an endngs (ukee + y + an = ukayan)

The 1st person forms may be formed using (ukee) or by using the (ii) direction marker as described earlier: (ii) – (ung) => (stem)-(iing).
As is the case for the indicative mode passives, the 3rd person forms are formed using the X form of the direct mode paradigm: (stem)-(und).

Paradigm Meaning
(stem)-ukayaan* I was —-
(stem)-ukayan You were —-
(stem)-und He was —-
(stem)-ukayeengw We (exclusive) were —-
(stem)-ukayeengw We (inclusive) were —-
(stem)-ukayeekw Ye were —-
(stem)-und They were —–

* One may also use this alternative:

(stem)-iing I was —-
Neewŭkáyaan or néewiing  
I was seen  

You were seen  

He was seen.  

We were seen  

Ye were seen  

They were seen  

Ápih neewíinge. 
x-me with iing   
If I am seen.  

If I am found.  
(x-me with ukee-y-aan)  

VTA Negative Indefinite Subject Conjunct Mode

Paradigm Meaning
mah (stem)-ukeewaan* I was not —-
mah (stem)-ukeewan You were not —-
not attested He was not —-
mah (stem)-ukeeweengw We (exclusive) were not —-
mah (stem)-ukeeweengw We (inclusive) were not —-
mah (stem)-ukeeweekw Ye were not —-
not attested They were not —–

* or mah (stem)-iiwiing

Mah neewŭkéewaan  
Mah neewŭkéewan  
Mah neewŭkéeweengw  
Mah neewŭkéeweekw  

More examples with varied preverbs

Neeka peew weetumu-mhwaahtiit ohpunal.
She came in while they were eating potatoes.

mhweew vta eat s.o.

When I dreamt of her

[namongwáaleew dream about s.o]

Peeshuwaawáawal naméesal iiyéeskwa kiish-piilíhaat amóoxool.
He brought the fish, before he finished cleaning the boat.

kiish- pv completed action
piilíheew clean s.o.
péeshuweew bring s.o.
amóoxool na boat

Taa lukíhkwi póondhaat lunuw?
How much does the man weigh?
poondheew weigh s.o.
lukíhkwi pc extent, volume, amount

Ta eelkih-ahwaaluyaan?
How much do you love me?

eelkih- pv certain amount, certain extent + conjunct

When a woman dies
(changed subjunctive conjunct)   

Nah weemáane  
When I left from there  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)   

When I saw him  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)   

Conjunct Imperatives

When used alone with uch (future) the subjunctive conjunct mode furnishes 3rd person imperatives:

Let him bring him

Let him see me

Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum VI

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