VTA Indefinite Subject Indicative Mode (Passives)

This mode expands on the concept of the X subject forms, where the subject is a “indefinite subject”, non-specific as to gender and number. There is no word in English to represent such a subject. The subject is vague to the point that one cannot translate using someone, because the subject could just as well be some people or something or some things.
The English passive comes closest to translating this concept.

For example:

"Indefinite Subject" hurt me. 
Someone, something, some people or some objects hurt me.
“I was hurt” (English passive form)

A logical step by step approach starting with the direct mode form of a verb will help one understand indefinite subject forms:

(1) Direct: I hurt him
(2) Inverse: He hurt me
(3) Passive: Indefinite subject hurt me
(4) Translation: I was hurt

Some verbs like wiiniiheew vta make s.o. angry make more sense using this step by step approach:

Direct: I made him angry.
Inverse: He made me angry.
Passive: Indefinite subject made me angry.
Translation: I was made angry or I was angered.

Another example, using the 2nd person singular: sakweelumeew worry about s.o.

Direct: You worried about him
Inverse: He worried about you.
Passive Indefinite subject worried about you.
Translation: You were being worried about.

These forms use the direction marker (ukee) followed by m endings.
Third person forms use the X subject forms we already know from the study of the direct mode.
Negative forms, subordinative mode forms and conjunct forms of this mode may also be inflected.

VTA Indefinite Subject Inverse Indicative Mode (Passives)

Paradigm Meaning
nu-(stem)-ukee(m) I was —-
ku-(stem)-ukee(m) you were —-
—-(stem)-aaw* He / She was —-
nu-(stem)-ukéhna we were —- (excl)
ku-(stem)-ukéhna we were —– (incl)
ku-(stem)-ukéhmwa ye were —–
—-(stem)-aawak* They were —–

*3rd person objects with an indefinite subject use the X subject (indefinite subject) forms of the indicative mode X—him, X—they-animate (stem)-aaw and (stem)-aawak

Néewkeem or néewke  
I was seen  

You were seen.  

He was often seen  
éewachu- PV often  

Míhka ndalóoluke.   
I was hired relunctantly  
alóoleew hire s.o.  
mihka pc  do relunctantly  

They were killed.  

He is loved.  

Go to VTA Indefinite Subject Practicum I

VTA Negative Indefinite Subject Inverse Indicative Mode (Passives)

Paradigm Meaning
mah nu-(stem)-ukeewi I was not —-
mah ku-(stem)-ukeewi you were not —-
mah —-(stem)-aawi* He / She was not —-
mah nu-(stem)-ukeewíhna we were not —- (excl)
mah ku-(stem)-ukeewíhna we were not —– (incl)
mah ku-(stem)-ukeewíhmwa ye were not —–
mah —-(stem)-aawiiwak* They were not —–

Mah ngataalkéewi.   
I'm not wanted.  

Mah neewkéewi.   
I was not seen.  

Mah kuneewkéewi.   
You were not seen.  

Mah neewaawi.   
He was not seen.  

Mah ndaloolukéewi   
I was not hired  
alóoleew hire s.o.  

Mah nihlaawíiwak.   
They were not killed.  

Mah ahwaaláawi.   
He is not loved.  

Go to VTA Indefinite Subject Practicum II

Special stems :

(stem-aw)-ukee = (stem)-aakee
(stem-uw)-ukee = (stem)-ookee

(stem-ahw)-ukee = (stem-ah)-ookee
(stem-ushw)-ukee = (stem-ush)-ookee
(stem-usw)-ukee = (stem-us)-ookee

I was misunderstood
chunustáweew misunderstand s.o.
Mah njunŭstaakéewi.   
I was not misunderstood.  

You were cut.  

We were kept.  

Wéenaa nuloosookéhna.   
We were almost burned  
wéenaa  pc  almost, nearly  

Mah nuloosookeewíhna.   
We were not burned  

VTA Stems Ending in (aw) or (uw)

Structure Inflection Result Example Inflected Meaning
(stem-aw)-ukee (stem)aakee kulústaweew ngulsutáake I was listened to
(stem-uw)-ukee (stem)ookee péeshuweew mbéeshooke I was brought
(stem-x)-ukee (stem)xookee kxweew ngaxooke I was feared

VTA Stems with ”hidden” (hw) or (sw)

Medial Meaning Stem Contraction Example
ahw tool (stem-ahw)-ukee (stem-ah)ookee páhtheew
ushw cutting (stem-ushw)-ukee (stem-ush)ookee tumúsheew
usw heat (stem-usw)-ukee (stem-us)ookee lóoseew

VTA Irregular Verb leew say to s.o.

Direct objective Inverse objective Inanimate Subj Inanimate Subj absolute Indefinite Subj
ndulaaw ndukw ndukwun ndukw +noun nduke
ktulaaw ktukw ktukwun ktukw +noun ktuke
wtulaawal wtukool wtukwun lukw +obv-noun laaw
ndulaawuna ndukoona ndukwuneen ndukóhna +noun ndukéhna
ktulaawuna ktukoona ktukwuneen ktukóhna +noun ktukéhna
ktulaawa ktukoowa ktukwuneewa ktulóhmwa +noun ktukéhmwa
wtulaawaawal wtukoowaawal wtukwuneewa lukook +obv-noun laawak

The (l) drops before ukw in forms with a prefix on the stem.
When a preverb takes the prefix, the (l) does not drop.

Ngáta-lukw. He intends to say to me.

VTA Irregular Verb mhwéew eat s.o.

Direct objective Inverse objective Inanimate Subj Inanimate Subj absolute Indefinite Subj
nŭmwuhaaw nŭmwuhookw nŭmwuhookwun nŭmwuhookw +noun nŭmwuhooke
kŭmwuhaaw kŭmwuhookw kŭmwuhookwun kŭmwuhookw +noun kŭmwuhooke
mwuhaawal mwuhookool mwuhookwun mhwukw +obv-noun mhwaaw
numwuhaawuna numwuhookoona numwuhookwuneen numwuhookóhna +noun numwuhookéhna
kumwuhaawuna kumwuhookoona kumwuhookwuneen kumwuhookóhna +noun kumwuhookéhna
kumwuhaawa kumwuhookoowa kumwuhookwuneewa kumwuhookóhmwa +noun kumwuhookéhmwa
mwuhaawaawal mwuhookoowaawal mwuhookwuneewa mhwukwak +obv-noun mhwaawak

The stem (mwuhw) collapses to (mhw) if not stressed.
If stressed, (mwuh) drops the final (w)
(nu)(mwúhw)(aa)(w) => nŭmwúhaaw
mwu is pronounced “mo”
(ref Goddard, Historical Phonology)

Go to VTA Indefinite Subject Practicum III

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