VTI Participle Conjunct

Lunáapeew also has a mode called the Participle Mode. In this mode the verb modifies nouns or act as like a noun.

The participle may have as its head (or focal point) any of the participants of the verb, similar to English participles:

swimming pool (swimming modifies a noun, pool)  
You swimmers (you plural is the focal point)  

This mode uses initial change and normal conjunct endings.

VTI participles may be translated using terms like : ‘It that he …’ or ‘where, what, how he …’


What he said
(uw say s.t., say it)  

What we said  

What he ate.  

What they ate  

What I ate  

What he saw  

What you saw  

What he wants  

What ye wants  

What he got.  
(ayum get s.t.)  

Waak heembut eewéeheet wiilawiináakwat.  
And the shirt that he was wearing looked fancy.  
aweeheew vaio wear s.t.  

Plural participles

Participles inflecting for a 3rd person as head of the phrase use the following endings:

(t) or (uk) 3rd person singular

Aakongwéepuy néeng.  
The hat he saw.  

Aakongwéepuyal néeng.  
The hats he saw  

(oo)(htiit) 3rd person plural

Aakongwéepuy neemóhtiit.  
The hat they saw.  

Aakongwéepuyal neemóhtiit.  
The hats they saw.  

Participles do no ordinarily use the plural suffix (iil) , but the ending may be used for clarity if desired.

 The chairs he wants.  
 Ahpapóonal keetáatang.  

 Ahpapóonal keetáatangiil (with optional plural ending) 
 The chairs, the ones he wants. 

Role of context
Context helps to clarify what is the head or the focal point of the participle when they could be ambiguity:

Péetoon aakongwéepuy.   
He brought the hat.  

Aakongwéepuy péetaakw wŭlút.   
The hat, the one he brought, was nice.  
The participle focuses on 'it', the hat, an inanimate noun.  

Nii nooxw péetaakw kway kúndkeew.  
My father, the one who brought it(the hat), is now dancing.      
The participle goes with father, head word of this phrase.  

Fossilized forms

Some old forms persist with consistent use of peripheral endings such as plural object or obviative endings:

My clothes  
(akwii-) + (aan) + (iil)  inanimate plural ending  
akuw vaio wear s.t.  

His clothes  
(akwii) + (t) + (iil)    

That which you own, your things.  
(nihláatam own s.t.)  

My things.  

His things.  
Our things.  

Their things.  

Ngáta-míichiin eetihtéekiil.  
I'll eat the ripe ones.  
(atihteew vii be ripe)  

Ngáta-máhlamun méexkeek.  
I'm going to buy it, the red one.  

Relative Roots

Stems with relative roots (or a preverb) may form participles with its head based on the relative root or on any of the participants.

Where I saw it  

Where he got it.  
(wund get s.t. from somewhere)   

Where I got it.  

Ootéeneeng weeng.   
The one who came from town.  

Aapaachíhleew weeng.  
He went home, where he came from.   
(aapaachihleew vai go home)  

Xwanzhíikanung wéenduk.  
The item he acquired in America.  

Xwanzhíikanung wéendawaan.  
The item I got in America.  
(head = it)  

Wuláhtoon wéenduk.  
He put it back where he got it from.  
(head = where)  

Néeka óoxwal wéenduk.  (or weendukiil)  
His father, the one who got it somewhere.   


Go to VTI Practicum 15 Conjunct Particle Mode

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