Mahican VTI Conjunct Participles

Mahican also has a mode called the Participle Mode. In this mode the verb modifies nouns or act as like a noun.

The participle may have as its head (or focal point) any of the participants of the verb:

He looks for something. He seeks it.  
He who looks for something. The seeker. (The person doing the seeking is the head of the participle.)
That which he seeks. The thing he is looking for. (The item he seeks is the head of the participle.)

Context helps distinguish which participant of the verb is to be interpreted as head of the participle.

Wkwiinamun.He looks for something. He seeks it.  

Kwiinak.He who looks for something. The seeker. (The person doing the seeking is the head of the participle.)

Kwiinak.That which he seeks. The thing he is looking for. (The item he seeks is the head of the participle.)

Mahican participles for VTIs look just like regular conjunct forms with initial change and usual conjunct endings, but unlike conjunct forms used as verbs, participles function as nouns and participles add endings to mark a plural object.

Sometimes an animate plural ending is added to a participle. This can happen for VAIOs when the object is animate.

Niik apunusak miichuyąąniik.  Those apples, the ones I ate. 

An animate plural ending can also be found when the subject is plural.

Miichiichiik. The ones who ate it. 

VTI participles may be translated using terms like : ‘It that he …’ or ‘where, what, how he or the one who…’

wunuθtam vti1a believe s.t. (s39)(HA3)

Waanθutak. The one who believes it. The believer.
(initial change)-(wunuθtam)-(k)

Waanθutkiik. Believers. 
(initial change)-(wunuθtam)-(k)-(iik)

Waanθutamniit. He (obv) who believes it. The believer (obv). What he (obv) believes. His belief (obv). (initial change)-(wunuθtam)-(uniit)

Note how the animate conjunct plural ending -iik used when the head of the participle is a plural 3rd person. A specialized obviative ending -unii-t is used to mark verbs other than VTAs with an obviative subject where required. This suffix is used for sg and for pl obviative subjects.

An inanimate plural ending -ih is used when the verb object is plural.

akúw vaio wear s.t.

Aaykwuyąąnih. My clothing. (The things I wear)
Aaykwíichih. His/her clothing. (P mlh30)
Aakwuyaakwih. The things you (pl) wear. (Matt7.6)
Aakwiiniit. His clothing. (obv)

Examples showing how the plural and obviative endings work.

Haamut naak.  
The shirt he saw.  

Haamtan naakih.  
The shirts he saw  

Haamut naamhtiit.  
The shirt they saw.  

Haamtan naamhtiichih.  
The hats they saw.  

Haamut naakiik.  
The ones who saw the shirt.  

Haamtan naakiik.  
The ones who saw the hats.  

 Tpąąkw miichiit.  
The bean he ate.  

 Tpąąkwan miichiichih (with plural ending) 
 The beans he ate. 

 Wtakwxooman miichiiniit.  
His bread that he ate.  

 Wtakwxoomah miichiiniit (with plural ending) 
 His loaves of bread which he ate. 

Participles with a 3rd person sg head:

Kiisihtaatup. The creator. (kiisihtaa)-t-up (Watts2) Ti-create-3s conj-pret
kiisihtaaw vti2 create, do, make s.t. (s97)(HA9)(Watts2)

Kiisih-tataapnatak. The one able to rule over it. (HA11)
tataapnatam govern, rule, lord over s.t. (HA11)

TI participles with a 3rd person plural head:

Kaatooθmwąątkiik. Those who thirst for it. (Matt5.6)
katooθmwąątam vti1a thirst after s.t. (Matt5.6)

Maawih niik aamatakiik. All those who feel … (s107)
amatam vti1a suffer, feel pain from s.t. (s64)

Kahkayiichiik. The elders. (HA63)
Kąąkayiit. The old(est) one. (s105)
Kahkayiit niitahkan. My oldest brother.
kahkayuw vaio be old, the oldest (s22 63)

Wąąk kaaxanawąątkiik. Also those who keep it. (HA48)
Maawih niik kaaxanawąątkiik. All those who keep it. (HA65)
kxanawąątam vti1a pay attention, keep, retain, remember s.t. (letters, verses etc) (HA56)(HA63) 

Maasnukiik.  Those who receive it. (HA32)
Maasnumniit. That he (obv) receives. (HA12) 
msunum vti1b touch s.t., get or receive s.t. (mshunum) (HA12)(Sw118)

Pahpaxkihkakiik. Those who break it.  
Paxkihkakpaniik. Those who broke it. (Watts18) (preterite)
Paxkihkak. He who breaks it.
paxkihkam vti1a break s.t. (Watts18) (HA55)(Matt5.19)

Forms with the object as the head of the participle

These may use the plural inanimate ending -ih after the conjunct ending.

Nihnąątmah. My possession. 
Nihnąątmąąnih. My possessions. 
Nihnąątman. Your possession. 
Nihnąątmanih. Your possessions. 
Nihnąątak. His possession. (HA61)
Nihnąątkih. His possession.
Nihnąątmaak. Our possession. (excl)
Nihnąątmaakih. Our possessions. (excl)
Nihnąątmakw. Our possession. (incl)
Nihnąątmakwih. Our possessions. (incl)
Nihnąątmaakw. Your possession. (2p)
Nihnąątmaakwih. Your possessions. (2p)
Nihnąątmuhtiit. Their possession. 
Nihnąątmuhtiichih. Their possessions. 
nihnąątam vti1a possess s.t. (HA61)

Aanih-kăkahkootamąąnih. The things I teach. (HA48)
Maawih nuyah kaakway aanih-kăkahkootamah. All that I have taught. (P mlh33)
kăkahkootam vti1a teach s.t. (HA Q3)(HA44)(HA48)(John3.2)(Matt5.19) (P mlh33) 

Aanuchuwąątaman. Your will. (JE) (Watts 14)
Aanuchuwąątak. His will. (Ps119.1)
anuchuwąątam vti1a want, wish, desire s.t. (HA97)

Kiisootak. What he ordained. (HA7)
kiisootam vti1a ordain, institute, establish s.t. (HA7) (HA49) (HA91)

Naawukwunuk. What is revealed.
naawukwunum vti1b reveal s.t. (HA39)(HA94)

Punawaanutak ndah. The meditation of my heart. (Ps19.14)
punawaanutam vti1a meditate, think about s.t. (Ps19.14) (Matt7.3)

Niin siikiinamanih. ‘The things you (sg.) hate.’ (S) (TM30)
siikiinam vti1a hate s.t. (John3.21)(HA86)

Wihtak. What he told. His testimony. His tale.
Waawihtamuniit. He (obv) who proclaims it. (HA52)
wihtam vti1a tell it, testify about it (JS)

Relative Roots

Stems with relative roots (or a preverb) may form participles with its head based on the relative root or on any of the participants.

Noh aatanih-kukahkootman. Here where you teach. (John3.10)
kăkahkootam vti1a teach s.t. (HA Q3)(HA44)(HA48)(John3.2)(Matt5.19) (P mlh33) 

Aanih-wiitahaatamakw. The way we ask for it. (HA73)
wiitahaatam vti1a plead for s.t., advocate for s.t.; ask, request (HA73)

Aatanih-naamah.  Where I saw it  
naam vti3 see s.t.

Waatuk. Where he got it.  
Waatah. Where I got it.  
wut get s.t. from somewhere

Ootaanaak waak.   
The one who came from town.  
(wmah come from somewhere)  

X subject participles

awasihnaaw vaio-ąą omit s.t. (HA60)
anaayuw vaio do s.t. so

Ahawasihnąąmukih. The things that are omitted. The omissions. 
Niin ąąyunaayumukih. Those things done so.


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