Lunáapeew also has a mode called the Participle Mode. In this mode the verb modifies nouns or act as a noun.
This mode uses initial change and normal conjunct endings.
Participles may be translated using terms like : ‘that which’ or ‘he who’
Participles may use any participant as its head or main focus.
Méexksiit. He who is red, the red one. (máxksuw he, s.t. animate is red) Méexksŭyeekw. Ye who are red. Éeyaat. Where he went. eew he goes (somewhere = implied) eeyaat: verb stem is (aa) => (ee)-(y)-(aa)-(t) (initial change)-(y insert)-(stem)-(conj ending) Éeyaan. Where I went. Péeyaat. The one who came. peew he comes its verb stem is (paa) irregular participle (initial change as ee + y) Éeyiit. What he said. uw he says (something = implied) stem is (ii) eeyiit: (ee)-(y)-(ii)-(t) (initial change)-(y insert)-(stem)-(conj ending)
The above three examples illustrate some particularities of monosyllabic verb stems, re: atypical initial change in the form of (eey)
Eelunuweelúnziit. Arrogant man. lunŭweelúnzuw vai-ii be an arrogant man Eelŭnuwíixtaat. Homely looking one lunŭwíixteew vai-aa look homely Wéelsiit. The pretty one. wulúsuw vai-ii be pretty, nice, good Wéelihk. The pretty thing. wŭlút vii be pretty, nice, good Kéewiit. The sleeping one. Sleeping beauty Wéelsiit kawíiw
VAI participles are listed in the dictionary inflected for a 3rd person head (head word of the relative phrase)
Extra suffixes for obviation are not usually added, but may be added.
(-t) or (uk) endings for 3rd p sg subjects
-(oo)(htiit) for 3rd p pl subjects
Lúnuw meetáawsiit. Evil man. Lúnuwak meetaawsíhtiit. Evil men. mataawsuw vai he is evil Meexksiit. The red one. Meexksíhtiit. The red ones, those which are red.
Periph endings such -(iik) plural animate -(iil) plural inanimate or -(iil) obviative are however used in ‘fossilized’ participles and function like nouns
Meenéechiik. Drunks. (munee)-(t)-(iik) (stem)- (3rd sg conj)-(animate pl) (munéew he drinks) A verb may be derived from this participle: meenéetuw he is (a) drunk (Reference Ives Goddard Delaware Verbal Morphology)
Preverbs and participles
Stems with relative roots (or a preverb) may form participles that may use as a focus any of the participants or the relative root may be the focus
A relative root is a root which could be coupled with a qualifier or a quantifier such as:
a location (wíikuw),
a means of doing something (liikáapawuw),
an amount (láawatuw),
a way of being (und),
a what or a something (uw)
Laawatúyaan. What I cost. Laawatúyan. What you cost. Éendaan. How I am. Éendan. How you are. Éeyaan. What I said. Éeyan. What you said. Liikaapawúyaan. How I stand. Liikaapawúyeekw. How ye stand. liikáapawuw vai he stands in a certain way,direction. Éeli-aaptóonayaan. How I speak. (li with initial change) Éenda-pumúsuyan. Where you walk. Séhku-alóhkayaan. How much I worked. Séhku-alóhkayeengw. How long we worked. sáhku- pv a certain length (of time, measurement) Xwanzhíikanung weeng. He who comes from the USA. The American. wum vai come from a certain place, from somewhere wung cong 3sg
Wíikuw vai dwell there
Wíikuyaan. Where I dwell. My home. Wíikuyan. Where you dwell. Your home Wíikiit His home. Wíikuyeengw. Our home. Wíikuyeekw. Your (pl) home. Wiikíhtiit. Their home.
Go to VAI Practicum 19 Participles