Mahican VII Changed Conjunct

This mode is used when the action of the secondary clause co-occurs simultaneously with the action of the main clause.

Preverbs often introduce the verbs in this mode, because the meaning of the preverb sets up the phrase in a way that a conjunct sub-phrase of this mode is needed. Some verbs incorporate the preverb as a root into the verb stem and consequently use this conjunct mode without a preverb.

The changed conjunct mode uses initial change plus the conjunct endings.

VII Conjunct Endings (Vowel ending stems)

Conjugation paradigm Meaning
(stem)-(k) 3rd sg: it, them —
Negative Conjugation paradigm Meaning
Ustah (stem)-(kw) 3rd sg: it, them —- not

Example using ksutaaw vii it is warm with the preverb aanih-– because

Because it is warm. (Because they are warm).

Ustah aanih-ksutaakw.      
Because it is not warm.  Because they are not warm.  

More examples using the preverb aanih-

aanih pv because, in the way it… or how it …

Wŭnút aanih-mxaak.   
It is pretty because it is big.  

Wunut aanih- ustah -mxahtaak.   
Its pretty because it is not snowing a lot.  
Tahaθuw aanih-mxahtaak.  
It is cold because it is snowing a lot.  

tahaθuw vii it is cold  

Mxih wŭnút aanih-wunahkamaak.   
It is very good because it is a good day.  
(wunahkamaaw vii be a good day)   

Ustah wunahkamaawih aanih- ustah mxahtaakw.   
It is not a good day because it is not snowing a lot..  

Examples using the preverb aatan-

aatan-– when or where

Ustah ahtaawih aatan-mxahtaak.  
It wasn't there when it snowed a lot.   

VIIs ending in consonants interact phonologically with the conjunct endings slightly differently than vowel ending verb stems.

VII Conjunct (Consonant ending stems)

Stem type Final ending Example End result
(stem-n)+(k) (stem-k) chiinxun+k chiinxuk
(stem-at)+(k) (stem-ahk) wuniipookwat+k waaniipookwahkw
(stem-ut)+(k) (stem-ihk) wunut+k waanihk

chiinxun vii makes noise, sound (John3.8)

It makes noise.

They make noise.

Because it makes noise.  Because they make noise.

Nih wuniipookwat? 
Does it taste good?  Do they taste good? 

Because it is tastes good. Because they taste good. 

It is nice. 

They are nice. 

Because it is nice.  Because they are nice. 

VII Negative Conjunct (Consonant ending stems)

ustah (stem)-ookw

Examples using anaxun vii be empty ; wuniipookwat vii taste good ; anut vii be rotten

Because it is empty.  Because they are empty.  

Ustah aanih-anaxunookw.     
Because it is not empty.  Because they are not empty.  

Because it tastes good.  Because they taste good.  

Ustah aanih-wuniipookwatookw.     
Because it does not taste good.

Because it rotted.  Because they rotted. 

Ustah aanih-anútookw         
Because it, they rotted not.        

Examples using the preverb aatan-– when or where

Kiipihnaan aatan-ksáxuk.  
They (inan.) fall when its windy.  

Wuláhkamaaw aatanih- ustah -sookŭnąąnookw.   
When it is not raining its a nice day.  


VIIs with unstable stems

VIIs with Unstable Stems Ending in -ąą

Some VIIs with stems ending in -ąą shift this vowel to -aa before 3rd person neutral mode w endings.

Neutral mode negative constructs also cause the vowel to shift to -aa-.

The true stem vowel -ąą- is used before conjunct endings.

These verb stems are referred to as ‘unstable’ because of this shift in the stem ending vowel.

Stable stems exist which end in -aa but these stems use the same vowel in all verb forms.

Mode Stem vowel Ending added Negatives
Indic Indep Sg (stem-ąą) (stem-aaw) ustah (stem-aawih)
Indic Indep Pl (stem-ąą) (stem-aawan*) ustah (stem-aawiin**)
Conjunct (stem-ąą) (stem-ąąk) ustah (stem-ąąkw)

*contracts to aan
**contracted from aawiiwan

VII Unstable Stems Ending in (ii)

Some VIIs listed as ending in (-uw) actually have stems ending in (ii):

Such stems morph the (ii) to (u) when a 3rd person ‘’w ending’‘ is added.

The true stem vowel (-ii) is used before conjunct endings and in neutral mode negative constructs. This behavior differs from the unstable (ąą) stems.

Endings type Inflection Result Negatives
(stem-ii) + indic mode endings (stem-uw) ustah (stem-iiwih)
(stem-ii) + plural indic mode endings (stem-uwan) ustah (stem-iiwiin)
(stem-ii) + conjunct endings (stem-iik) ustah (stem-iikw)


It is split in two.   

Ustah wunutóowih aanih-pasíhnąąk.   
Its not pretty because it split in two.  
(vii's ending in -ihnaaw have unstable stems in -ąą)  

It spilled.  

Ustah wunutoowih aanih-θookahnąąk.   
It is no good because it spilled.  

Kahnah niipan chąąchupaayuwan.   
My arrows really are sharp.

chąąchupaayuw vii-ii be sharp, pointed (s110)

Stah niipan chąąchupaayiiwiin. 
My arrows are not sharp. (s33)

Wunut aanih- niipan -chąąchupaayiik. 
It is good that my arrows are sharp. 

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