Mahican VAI Indicative Mode Consonant Stems

Many VAI verb stems end in consonants.
These verbs are listed in the dictionary in the 3rd person singular indicative form which happens to be the actual verb stem in most cases.

VOTI stems, like the VTIs, are classified based on the type of class marker which is added to the stem.
VOTIs using the class marker -am are designated as voti1a and those using the class marker -um are designated as voti1b. Their conjugation patterns are identical to those of consonant ending VAIs in the Independent Order. Some differences in conjugation exist for imperative forms and some conjunct forms.

The conjugation paradigms for typical consonant ending stems was described in the preceding chapter.

This chapter will describe certain types of consonant ending VAIs that have atypical conjugation patterns. .


(1) VAI stem ending in (-xiin)

These conjugate regularly as described in the consonant ending stem paradigm. However the final (n) in the 1st and 2nd person sg forms may be optionally omitted, such that these forms will end in -ih instead of -iin.

anaxakiixiin vai lie down (s91)

Ndanaxakiixiin.  I lie down. 
Ndanaxakiixih. I lie down. (variant)

Anaxakiixiin. He lies down.

Ktanaxakiixiin? Did you lie down? (Are you lying down?)
Ktanaxakiixih? Did you lie down? (variant)

Ustah nuyāāanah ndanaxakiixiinoowihnah..
We are not lying down.

Kuyāānah ąąm Ktanaxakiixiinhnah.
We should lie down.

You (pl) are lying down. 

There is lying down.


(2) VAIs ending in vocalized consonants

These conjugate regularly as described in the consonant ending stem paradigm except for the presence of a vocalized -uw ending in the 3rd person forms, both sg and pl of the independent indicative mode. These verbs are labeled with the abbreviation vai-cv.

wunāāyuw vai-cv be good, nice

I am good. 
(nu + wu => noo)   

Ustah noonāāyoow.  
I am not good. 

You are good. 

Nāākmah wunāāyuw. 
He or she is good. 

We are good.  

Nāākmąąwąh wunāāyuwak   
They are good.  

mbuw vai-cv die

I am dying. 

He died. 

Kuyāāawah kunuphmah. 
You (pl) are dying. 

They are dying. 

(3) VOTI verbs in -am and -um

These conjugate in the same way as described in the consonant ending stem paradigm in the indicative independent mode. VOTIs conjugate differently in some of the other modes.

wunāānŭtam voti1a he is happy (has a good feeling)

wmah voti1b come from, go from, go forth, proceed from (wum with the vocalized ending -ah added only to the 3rd person sg form, because stem is monosyllabic)

Nuya=ch noonāānŭtam wunahkamāākah.  
I will be happy if its a nice day.  

Nuya=ch ustah noonāānŭtamoow sookunąąkah.  
I won't be happy if it rains.  

Kuyah koonāānŭtam wunąąkwah?  
Were you happy yesterday?  

Nāākmah ąąpchiiwih wunāānŭtam.  
She is always happy.  

Nuyāānah wunāānŭtamoowihnah āānih-pxąąk.  
We can't be happy because its snowing.  

Kuyāāwah kŭmáwih-wunāānŭtamhmah.  
You (pl) are going to be happy.  

Nāākmąąwąh wunāānŭtamāāk.  
They are happy.  

There is happiness.  

Back to top