Mahican VTA Passives

This mode expands on the concept of the X subject forms, where the subject is a “indefinite subject”, non-specific as to gender and number. There is no word in English to represent such a subject. The subject is vague to the point that one cannot translate using someone, because the subject could just as well be some people or something or some things.
The English passive comes closest to translating this concept.

For example:

"Indefinite Subject" hurt me. 
Someone, something, some people or some objects hurt me.
“I was hurt” (English passive form)

A logical step by step approach starting with the direct mode form of a verb will help one understand indefinite subject forms:

(1) Direct: I hurt him
(2) Inverse: He hurt me
(3) Passive: Indefinite subject hurt me
(4) Translation: I was hurt

Some verbs like amachoonāāw ‘anger s.o.’ make more sense using this step by step approach:

Direct: I made him angry.
Inverse: He made me angry.
Passive: Indefinite subject made me angry.
Translation: I was angered.

Another example: aniitahamāāw ‘think about s.o.’

Direct: You thought about him
Inverse: He thought about you.
Passive Indefinite subject thought about you.
Translation: You were being thought about.

These forms use the direction marker (ukāā) followed by m endings.
Third person forms follow a different paradigm and use the X subject forms we already know from the study of the direct mode.
Negative forms, subordinative mode forms and conjunct forms of this mode may also be inflected.

VTA Indefinite Subject Inverse Indicative Mode (Passives)

Paradigm Meaning
nu-(stem)-ukah I was —-
ku-(stem)-ukah you were —-
—-(stem)-ąąw He / She was —-
nu-(stem)-ukahna we were —- (excl)
nu-(stem)-ukahnookw we all were —- (excl)
ku-(stem)-ukahna we were —– (incl)
ku-(stem)-ukahnookw we all were —– (incl)
ku-(stem)-ukahmwa you (pl) were —–
—-(stem)-ąąk They were —–
I was seen.

You were seen.  

Nāākmah nāāwąąw.   
He was seen.

I was treated so.  

They were killed.  

He is loved.  

VTA Negative Indefinite Subject Inverse Indicative Mode (Passives)

Paradigm Meaning
ustah nu-(stem)-ukāāw I was not —-
ustah ku-(stem)-ukāāw you were not —-
ustah —-(stem)-ąąwih He / She was not —-
ustah nu-(stem)-ukāāwíhnah we were not —- (excl)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukāāwíhnah we were not —– (incl)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukāāwíhmah you (pl) were not —–
ustah —-(stem)-ąąwiik They were not —–

anuwāānumāāw vta honor s.o.

Ustah ndanuwāānmukāāw.   
I'm not honored.  
Ustah nāāwkāāw.   
I was not seen.  

Ustah kunāāwkāāw.   
You were not seen.  

Ustah nāāwąąwih.   
He was not seen.  

Ustah nahnąąwiik.   
They were not killed.  

Ustah ahwąąnąąwih.   
He is not loved.  

Special stems :

(stem-aw)-ukāā- = (stem)-ąąkāā-
(stem-uw)-ukāā- = (stem)-ookāā-

(stem-h)-ukāā- = (stem)-hookāā-
(stem-x)-ukāā- = (stem)-xookāā-

I was believed.
aw+ukāā= ąąkāā

Ustah koonθutąąkāāw.   
You were not believed.  

He was treated so. 

I was feared. 

VTA Special Stems

Structure Inflection Result Example Inflected Meaning
(stem-aw)-ukāā (stem)ąąkāā wunúθtawāāw noonθutąąkah I was believed
(stem-uw)-ukāā (stem)ookāā pāāsuwāāw mbāāsookah I was brought
(stem-x)-ukāā (stem)xookāā kxwāāw ngwaxookah I was feared
(stem-h)-ukāā (stem)hookāā anihāāw ndunihookah I was treated so

anāāw vta say to s.o.

VTA Irregular Verb

Direct objective Inverse objective Inanimate Subj Inanimate Subj absolute Indefinite Subj
ndunąąw ndukw ndukwun ndukw +noun ndukah
ktunąąw ktukw ktukwun ktukw +noun ktukah
wtunąąn wtukāān wtukwun anukw +obv-noun anāāw
ndunąąnah ndukoonah ndukwunāānah ndukóhnah +noun ndukahnah
ktunąąnah ktukoonah ktukwunāānah ktukóhnah +noun ktukahnah
ktunąąwah ktukoowah ktukwunāāwah ktulóhmah +noun ktukahmah
wtunąąwąąn wtukoowąąn wtukwunāāwah anukāāk +obv-noun nąąk

The (n) drops before ukw in forms with a prefix on the stem.
When a preverb takes the prefix, the (n) does not drop.

Ngátāāw-nukw. He intends to say to me.

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