Mahican VTA Passives

This mode expands on the concept of the X subject forms, where the subject is a “indefinite subject”, non-specific as to gender and number. There is no word in English to represent such a subject. The subject is vague to the point that one cannot translate using someone, because the subject could just as well be some people or something or some things.
The English passive comes closest to translating this concept.

For example:

"Indefinite Subject" hurt me. 
Someone, something, some people or some objects hurt me.
“I was hurt” (English passive form)

A logical step by step approach starting with the direct mode form of a verb will help one understand indefinite subject forms:

(1) Direct: I hurt him
(2) Inverse: He hurt me
(3) Passive: Indefinite subject hurt me
(4) Translation: I was hurt

Some verbs like amachoonaaw ‘anger s.o.’ make more sense using this step by step approach:

Direct: I made him angry.
Inverse: He made me angry.
Passive: Indefinite subject made me angry.
Translation: I was angered.

Another example: aniitahamaaw ‘think about s.o.’

Direct: You thought about him
Inverse: He thought about you.
Passive Indefinite subject thought about you.
Translation: You were being thought about.

These forms use the direction marker (ukaa) followed by m endings.
Third person forms follow a different paradigm and use the X subject forms we already know from the study of the direct mode.
Negative forms, subordinative mode forms and conjunct forms of this mode may also be inflected.

VTA Indefinite Subject Inverse Indicative Mode (Passives)

Paradigm Meaning
nu-(stem)-ukah I was —-
ku-(stem)-ukah you were —-
—-(stem)-ąąw He / She was —-
nu-(stem)-ukahna we were —- (excl)
ku-(stem)-ukahna we were —– (incl)
ku-(stem)-ukahnookw we all were —– (incl)
ku-(stem)-ukahmwa you (pl) were —–
—-(stem)-ąąk They were —–
I was seen.

You were seen.  

Naakmah naawąąw.   
He was seen.

I was treated so.  

They were killed.  

He is loved.  

VTA Negative Indefinite Subject Inverse Indicative Mode (Passives)

Paradigm Meaning
ustah nu-(stem)-ukaaw I was not —-
ustah ku-(stem)-ukaaw you were not —-
ustah —-(stem)-ąąwih He / She was not —-
ustah nu-(stem)-ukaawíhnah we were not —- (excl)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukaawíhnah we were not —– (incl)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukaawihnookw we all were not —— (incl)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukaawíhmah you (pl) were not —–
ustah —-(stem)-ąąwiik They were not —–

anuwaanumaaw vta honor s.o.

Ustah ndanuwaanmukaaw.   
I'm not honored.  
Ustah naawkaaw.   
I was not seen.  

Ustah kunaawkaaw.   
You were not seen.  

Ustah naawąąwih.   
He was not seen.  

Ustah nahnąąwiik.   
They were not killed.  

Ustah ahwąąnąąwih.   
He is not loved.  

Special stems :

(stem-aw)-ukaa- = (stem)-ąąkaa-
(stem-uw)-ukaa- = (stem)-ookaa-

(stem-h)-ukaa- = (stem)-hookaa-
(stem-x)-ukaa- = (stem)-xookaa-

I was believed.
aw+ukaa= ąąkaa

Ustah koonθutąąkaaw.   
You were not believed.  

He was treated so. 

I was feared. 

VTA Special Stems

Structure Inflection Result Example Inflected Meaning
(stem-aw)-ukaa (stem)ąąkaa wunúθtawaaw noonθutąąkah I was believed
(stem-uw)-ukaa (stem)ookaa paasuwaaw mbaasookah I was brought
(stem-x)-ukaa (stem)xookaa kxwaaw ngwaxookah I was feared
(stem-h)-ukaa (stem)hookaa anihaaw ndunihookah I was treated so

anaaw vta say to s.o.

VTA Irregular Verb

Direct objective Inverse objective Inanimate Subj Inanimate Subj absolute Indefinite Subj
ndunąąw ndukw ndukwun ndukw +noun ndukah
ktunąąw ktukw ktukwun ktukw +noun ktukah
wtunąąn wtukaan wtukwun anukw +obv-noun anaaw
ndunąąnah ndukoonah ndukwunaanah ndukóhnah +noun ndukahnah
ktunąąnah ktukoonah ktukwunaanah ktukóhnah +noun ktukahnah
ktunąąwah ktukoowah ktukwunaawah ktulóhmah +noun ktukahmah
wtunąąwąąn wtukoowąąn wtukwunaawah anukaak +obv-noun nąąk

The (n) drops before ukw in forms with a prefix on the stem.
When a preverb takes the prefix, the (n) does not drop.

Ngátaaw-nukw. He intends to say to me.

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