VII Changed Conjunct Mode

This mode is used when the action of the secondary clause co-occurs simultaneously with the action of the main clause.

Preverbs often introduce the verbs in this mode, because the meaning of the preverb sets up the phrase in a way that a conjunct sub-phrase of this mode is needed. Some verbs incorporate the preverb as a root into the verb stem and consequently use this conjunct mode without a preverb.

The changed conjunct mode uses initial change plus the conjunct endings.

VII Conjunct Endings (Vowel ending stems)

Conjugation paradigm Meaning
(stem)-(k) 3rd sg: it, them —
Negative Conjugation paradigm Meaning
Ustah (stem)-(kw) 3rd sg: it, them —- not

Example using ksutāāw vii it is warm with the preverb āānih-– because

Because it is warm. (Because they are warm).

Ustah āānih-ksutāākw.      
Because it is not warm.  Because they are not warm.  

More examples using the preverb āānih-

āānih pv because, in the way it… or how it …

Wŭnút āānih-mxāāk.   
It is pretty because it is big.  

Wunut āānih- ustah -mxahtāāk.   
Its pretty because it is not snowing a lot.  
Tahaθuw āānih-mxahtāāk.  
It is cold because it is snowing a lot.  

tahaθuw vii it is cold  

Mxih wŭnút āānih-wunahkamāāk.   
It is very good because it is a good day.  
(wunahkamāāw vii be a good day)   

Ustah wunahkamāāwih āānih- ustah mxahtāākw.   
It is not a good day because it is not snowing a lot..  

Examples using the preverb āātan-

āātan-– when or where

Ustah ahtāāwih āātan-mxahtāāk.  
It wasn't there when it snowed a lot.   

VIIs ending in consonants interact phonologically with the conjunct endings slightly differently than vowel ending verb stems.

VII Conjunct (Consonant ending stems)

Stem type Final ending Example End result
(stem-n)+(k) (stem-k) chiinxun+k chiinxuk
(stem-at)+(k) (stem-ahk) wuniipookwat+k wāāniipookwahkw
(stem-ut)+(k) (stem-ihk) wunut+k wāānihk

chiinxun vii makes noise, sound (John3.8)

It makes noise.

They make noise.

Because it makes noise.  Because they make noise.

Nih wuniipookwat? 
Does it taste good?  Do they taste good? 

Because it is tastes good. Because they taste good. 

It is nice. 

They are nice. 

Because it is nice.  Because they are nice. 

VII Negative Conjunct (Consonant ending stems)

ustah (stem)-ookw

Examples using anaxun vii be empty ; wuniipookwat vii taste good ; anut vii be rotten

Because it is empty.  Because they are empty.  

Ustah āānih-anaxunookw.     
Because it is not empty.  Because they are not empty.  

Because it tastes good.  Because they taste good.  

Ustah āānih-wuniipookwatookw.     
Because it does not taste good.

Because it rotted.  Because they rotted. 

Ustah āānih-anútookw         
Because it, they rotted not.        

Examples using the preverb āātan-– when or where

Kiipihnāān āātan-ksáxuk.  
They (inan.) fall when its windy.  

Wuláhkamāāw āātanih- ustah -sookŭnąąnookw.   
When it is not raining its a nice day.  


VIIs with unstable stems

VIIs with Unstable Stems Ending in -ąą

Some VIIs with stems ending in -ąą shift this vowel to -āā before 3rd person neutral mode w endings.

Neutral mode negative constructs also cause the vowel to shift to -āā-.

The true stem vowel -ąą- is used before conjunct endings.

These verb stems are referred to as ‘unstable’ because of this shift in the stem ending vowel.

Stable stems exist which end in -āā but these stems use the same vowel in all verb forms.

Mode Stem vowel Ending added Negatives
Indic Indep Sg (stem-ąą) (stem-āāw) ustah (stem-āāwih)
Indic Indep Pl (stem-ąą) (stem-āāwan*) ustah (stem-āāwiin**)
Conjunct (stem-ąą) (stem-ąąk) ustah (stem-ąąkw)

*contracts to āān
**contracted from āāwiiwan

VII Unstable Stems Ending in (ii)

Some VIIs listed as ending in (-uw) actually have stems ending in (ii):

Such stems morph the (ii) to (u) when a 3rd person ‘’w ending’‘ is added.

The true stem vowel (-ii) is used before conjunct endings and in neutral mode negative constructs. This behavior differs from the unstable (ąą) stems.

Endings type Inflection Result Negatives
(stem-ii) + indic mode endings (stem-uw) ustah (stem-iiwih)
(stem-ii) + plural indic mode endings (stem-uwan) ustah (stem-iiwiin)
(stem-ii) + conjunct endings (stem-iik) ustah (stem-iikw)


It is split in two.   

Ustah wunutóowih āānih-pasíhnąąk.   
Its not pretty because it split in two.  
(vii's ending in -ihnāāw have unstable stems in -ąą)  

It spilled.  

Ustah wunutoowih āānih-θookahnąąk.   
It is no good because it spilled.  

Kahnah niipan chąąchupāāyuwan.   
My arrows really are sharp.

chąąchupāāyuw vii-ii be sharp, pointed (s110)

Stah niipan chąąchupāāyiiwiin. 
My arrows are not sharp. (s33)

Wunut āānih- niipan -chąąchupāāyiik. 
It is good that my arrows are sharp. 

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