Mahican VTI Independent Indicative

These verbs take the form :

subject - verb - object  
nŭmíichiin        I - eat - it  
kŭmiichíinah      You - eat - them (inanimate plural)  

Transitive inanimate verbs (VTIs) have an animate subject: I, you, him (or her or animate noun), we, you (pl), they (or plural animate noun or two or more animate nouns).

VTIs have an object (it, them) which is always inanimate in gender.

Also discussed here are the VAIOs, verbs which conjugate using VTI endings but structurally are related to VAIs. VAIO stands for verb animate intransitive +object. VAIOs however differ in one key way from VTIs in that the object of a VAIO can be either animate or inanimate.

VTIs may be conjugated into the Indicative Mode (which includes objective forms and absolute forms), the Subordinative Mode, all four Conjunct Order Modes, and the Imperative Mode.

VTIs are listed in the dictionary under their 3p sg indicative mode, absolute form. These terms will be explained below.

To conjugate a verb one must learn the typical ways the prefixes interact with the verb stem (beginning patterns) and the ways the endings interact with the verb stem (ending patterns).

Stem Classes of VTIs

VTI stems come in 3 classes, according to which type of stem ending phoneme called a class marker.

Class 1a VTIs always end in (am).

Class 1b VTIs use the (um) class marker.

Class 2 uses the (āā) marker* which makes the verb similar to a VAI with a stable stem ending in āā.

Class 3 VTIs are few in number and have no class marker.

         wut vti3 he gets it from somewhere  
         nāām vti3 he sees it

*older Mahican materials used the class marker -aw which contracted to -āā- before m endings and n endings but persisted in conjunct forms in patterns similar to Munsee Delaware.
The two versions of the Dr Watts Short Catechism show the differences in these forms. When Hendrick Aupaumut corrected the text, the new class marker āā was used instead of the older class marker -aw. For practical reasons I consider the new class marker to simply be āā which makes things more simple and does not contradict data from the textual materials.

VTI or Transitive Inanimate Verb Stems

Verb ending Stem Stem type Example Meaning
–am (stem-am) vti1a ąąyąątam he wants s.t
–um (stem-um) vti1b amanum he take s.t. away
–āāw (stem-āā) vti2 anahtāāw he loses s.t.
–m (stem-m) vti3 nāām he sees s.t.
–t (stem-t) vti3 wut he get s.t. from a place

VAIOs have stem endings similar to the VAIs and like VAIs, some VAIOs have unstable stems and shift the stem vowel in the 3rd person indicative forms whereas stable verbs do not undergo this shift. Note that some VAIOs have vocalized consonant stems which add -uw to the 3rd person forms only but otherwise behave as a consonant ending stem.

VAIO or Animate Intransitive + Object Verb Stems

Verb ending Stem Stem type Example Meaning
–āāw (stem-āā) vaio stable munāāw drink s.t.
–uw (stem-ii) vaio unstable miichuw eat s.t
–kuw (stem-kwii) vaio unstable akúw wear s.t.
–āāw (stem-ąą) vaio unstable awasihnāāw omit s.t.
–k (stem-k) vaio consonant māāk give s.t. away
–y (stem-y) vaio-cv anāāyuw do s.t.

VTI Indicative Sub-Modes Overview

The VTI Independent Indicative supports two types of construction:

Objective (Object) Mode with Noun Optional Construction

I saw it.  

Nāāmun ahpapoon.  
I saw it, the chair.  

I saw them.

Nāāmunah niin ahpapoonan.   
I saw them - those chairs.  

This mode refers to specific, definite objects. The verb (nāāmun) needs no noun, because the verb itself includes a subject, and a definite specific inanimate object translated as ‘it’. Both the speaker and listener should know exactly what is the identity of ‘it’ when this type of construction is used. A noun may be used, in which case the ‘it’ included in the verb is understood as referring to that noun object specifically. The English translation of these forms should use the definite article the to address the object it.

Absolute or Noun Required Construction

Nāām kāākway. 
I saw s.t.  

Nāām ahpapoon. 
I saw a chair.  

Nāām ahpapoonan. 
I saw some chairs.  

Nāāmāāk stāāw.  
They saw a fire.  

This is the mode one uses when speaking of an object in a non-specific way. In this mode, the verb (nāām) only contains information about the subject and that an object of some type and of some quantity will follow. Therefore a verb in this mode cannot stand alone, a noun (or pronoun) must be added. The noun then tells us what kind of object is being talking about, and may be singular or plural without any change in the preceding verb form.

The translation in English should use one of the indefinite articles , i.e. a or some.

Absolute verb forms remain the same regardless of whether the object is singular or plural because the verb lacks definiteness only contains information about a subject, the verb and an inanimate mystery object.

VAIOs in this absolute submode may have either an animate or inanimate mystery object.


VTI Objective Conjugation Paradigms

Objective VTI constructs use prefixes and endings known as the ‘’n endings’’

Singular Object Forms:

These forms are used when the object is singular and will be referred to as ‘it.’

VTI Indicative Mode Objective Forms (with singular object)

Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm Meaning
nu-(vowel stem)-n nu-(consonant stem)-un I — it
ku-(vowel stem)-n ku-(consonant stem)-un You — it
wu-(vowel stem)-n wu-(consonant stem)-un He or She — it
nu-(vowel stem)-nāānah nu-(consonant stem)-unāānah We — it (exclusive)
nu-(vowel stem)-nāānookw nu-(consonant stem)-unāānookw We all — it (exclusive)
ku-(vowel stem)-nāānah ku-(consonant stem)-unāānah We — it (inclusive)
nu-(vowel stem)-nāānookw nu-(consonant stem)-unāānookw We all — it (inclusive)
ku-(vowel stem)-nāāwah ku-(consonant stem)-unāāwah You (pl) — it
wu-(vowel stem)-nāāwah wu-(consonant stem)-unāāwah They — it

Note the (wu) prefix in the 3rd person forms of the n ending set.

Consonant ending stems insert (u) before the n endings, whereas vowel ending stems do not.

Examples for each stem type:

VTI class 1a example

ndąąyąątamun       I want it   

VTI class 1b example

ndamanumun      I take it way

VTI class 2 example

ndanahtāān       I lose it  

VTI Class 3 example

nāāmun         I saw it   

VAIOs indicative objective forms do not shift the stem ending vowel for any forms in this set using n endings.

miichuw vaio he eats it.

numiichiin. I eat it (inanimate). I eat it. (animate)
wumiichiin, wumiichiinan (obv)
wumiichiināāwah, wumiichiināāwąąn (obv)

msąątam vti1a think about s.t.. remember s.t.
nąątum vti1b get s.t., go after s.t.
áhtāāw vti2 put s.t. somewhere
wut vti3 get it from somewhere
kiisih pv can do s.t.
kíimihpv secretly
ngúmāāw pc always (pronounced like “go ma ow”)

Nuyah numusąątamun.  I remember it.  (nu(msąątam)un)

Kamuk ngiimih-wtun aθún. Psukw ngúmāāw kunąątumun. 
I secretly got the rock from over there. But you always were going after it.

Kumusąątamun kāākway āāyan?
Do you remember what you said?

Kiisih- ąąm -nąątumun? wkiisih- ąąm nąątumun?
Can you do it? Can he do it?

Nāākmah āāt musąątamun.
He might remember it.

Ndahtóonāānah tkwax.
We put the bread away.

We did it in error.

Kiisih- ąąm -nąątamunāāwah tkwax.
You (pl) can get the bread.

Noonoh wkatāāw-miichiināāwah tkwax.
They want to eat the bread now.



Objective Plural Object Forms:

These forms are used when the object is plural. The expected plural ending (-an) is modified to -ah after those endings which end in n.


VTI Indicative Mode Objective Forms (with plural object)

Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm Meaning
nu-(vowel stem)-n-ah nu-(consonant stem)-un-ah I — them*
ku-(vowel stem)-n-ah ku-(consonant stem)-un-ah You — them
wu-(vowel stem)-n-ah wu-(consonant stem)-un-ah He or She — them
nu-(vowel stem)-nāānąąn nu-(consonant stem)-unāānąąn We — them (exclusive)
nu-(vowel stem)-nāānookw** nu-(consonant stem)-unāānookw** We all — them (exclusive)
ku-(vowel stem)-nāānąąn ku-(consonant stem)-nāānąąn We — them (inclusive)
ku-(vowel stem)-nāānookw** ku-(consonant stem)-unāānookw** We all — them (inclusive)
ku-(vowel stem)-nāāwąąn ku-(consonant stem)-unāāwąąn You (pl) — them
wu-(vowel stem)-nāāwąąn wu-(consonant stem)-unāāwąąn They — them

*them refers to “more than one of s.t. inanimate”
** identical to forms with singular object

The verb ąąyąątam vti1a he wants it

ndąąyąątamunah  I want them  


Nuyah numusąątamúnah.   
I remember the things.

Kamuk ngíimih-wútunah aθúnan.
Shukw ąąpchiiwih kunąątumúnah. 
I secretly got them, the rocks, from over there. But you always were going after them.

Kuyah kumusąątamúnah kāākway āāyan?
Do you remember the thing you said?

Wkiisih- ąąm -nąątumunah? 
Can he do those things?

Nāākmah āāt musąątamunah wkiisooxw-wuθkiinjkwahíikanan. 
He might remember them, his sunglasses.  

Numahtāānāānąąn wθoowhiikanan. 
We put the books down.

We did them in error.

Kuyāāwah kiisih- ąąm -nąątumunāāwąąn wθoowhiikanan.
You (pl) can get the books.

Kāāchih nāākmąąwąh wkatāāw-miichiināāwąąn tpąąkwan. 
They want to eat them, the beans now.

Notes on VAIOs

VAIOs are verbs that are similar in structure to VAIs but take an object which can be either animate or inanimate.

(VAIOs are animate intransitive verbs + object, also called pseudo-intransitive verbs)

VAIOs with an animate object

Animate objects are built into the verb and animate endings apply when necessary.
When the animate object of a VAIO is obviative, then an obviative ending is added. This can occur if both the subject and the object are animate 3rd persons or animate nouns.

When the animate object of a VAIO is plural and non-obviative, then the animate plural ending (-ak) is added.

VAIOs with an inanimate object

If the inanimate object of a VAIO is singular, no additional endings are required. Inanimate objects are never obviative.

If the inanimate object of a VAIO is plural, then it uses the inanimate plural ending (-ah) after the ‘n endings’ with a final n and adds -an elsewhere.

VAIO Forms with Plural or Obviative Object

Animate Object Plural Animate Object Form Inanimate Object Plural Inanimate Object
nu-(stem)-(u)n nu-(stem)-(u)n-ak 1st sg nu-(stem)-(u)n nu-(stem)-(u)n-ah
ku-(stem)-(u)n ku-(stem)-(u)n-ak 2nd sg ku-(stem)-(u)n ku-(stem)-(u)n-ah
wu-(stem)-(u)n-an wu-(stem)-(u)n-ah 3rd sg wu-(stem)-(u)n wu-(stem)-(u)n-an
nu-(stem)-unāānah nu-(stem)-unāānąąk 1st pl nu-(stem)-unāānah nu-(stem)-unāānąąn
nu-(stem)-unāānookw* nu-(stem)-unāānookw 1st pl collective nu-(stem)-unāānookw nu-(stem)-unāānookw
ku-(stem)-unāānah ku-(stem)-unāānąąk 2+1pl ku-(stem)-unāānah ku-(stem)-unāānąąn
ku-(stem)-unāānookw* ku-(stem)-unāānookw 2+1pl collective ku-(stem)-unāānookw ku-(stem)-unāānookw
ku-(stem)-unāāwah ku-(stem)-unāāwąąk 2nd pl ku-(stem)-unāāwah ku-(stem)-unāāwąąn
wu-(stem)-unāāwąąn wu-(stem)-unāāwąą 3rd pl wu-(stem)-unāāwah wu-(stem)-unāāwąąn

*I was unable to find any collective forms with peripheral participant related endings

miichuw vaio eat s.t.

Examples with animate object.

Nuya=ch numiichiin.  Nuya=ch numiichiin mbāātkwāāy..  
I will eat it (animate). I will eat my turnip. 

Nuya=ch numiichiinak.   Nuya=ch numiichiinak niik mbāātkwāāyak. .  
I will eat them. (animate pl) I will eat those turnips. 

Nah wpāātkwāāyan. Nāākmąą=ch wumiichiinan. Nāākmąą=ch wumiichiinan nah wpāātkwāāyan.  
He will eat it.  (animate sg obv)  He will eat that turnip. 

Nāākmąą=ch wumiichiinah.  Nāākmąą=ch wumiichiinah niih wpāātkwāāyah.  
He will eat them.  (animate pl obv) He will eat those turnips. 

Examples with inanimate object.

Nuya=ch numiichiin. Nuya=ch numiichiin nih piitooniikan.I will eat it.  (inanimate sg)  I will eat this pie. 

Nuya=ch numiichiinah. Nuya=ch numiichiinah niin piitooniikanan.  
I will eat them.  (inanimate pl)  I will eat these pies. 


Negative VTI Indicative Mode Objective Forms

Negatives are formed in the following manner:

First add (wu) to the end of the stem then add the appropriate n ending and add the prefix.
Stems ending in consonants insert (-oo-) before (wu)

VTI Negative Indicative Mode Objective Forms with singular object

Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm Meaning
ustah nu-(stem)-wun ustah nu-(stem)-oowun I — it not
ustah ku-(stem)-wun ustah ku-(stem)-oowun You — it not
ustah wu-(stem)-wun ustah wu-(stem)-oowun He or She — it not
ustah nu-(stem)-wunāānah ustah nu-(stem)-oowunāānah We — it not (exclusive)
ustah nu-(stem)-wunāānookw ustah nu-(stem)-oowunāānookw We all — it not (exclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-wunāānah ustah ku-(stem)-oowunāānah We — it not (inclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-wunāānookw ustah ku-(stem)-oowunāānookw We all — it not (inclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-wunāāwah ustah ku-(stem)-oowunāāwah You (pl) — it not
ustah wu-(stem)-wunāāwah ustah wu-(stem)-oowunāāwah They — it not

VTI Negative Indicative Mode Objective Forms with plural object

Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm Meaning
ustah nu-(stem)-wunah ustah nu-(stem)-oowunah I — them* not
ustah ku-(stem)-wunah ustah ku-(stem)-oowunah You — them not
ustah wu-(stem)-wunah ustah wu-(stem)-oowunah He or She — them not
ustah nu-(stem)-wunāānąąn ustah nu-(stem)-oowunāānąąn We — them not (exclusive)
ustah nu-(stem)-wunāānookw ustah nu-(stem)-oowunāānookw We all — them not (exclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-wunąąnąąn ustah ku-(stem)-oowunāānąąn We — them not (inclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-wunąąnookw ustah ku-(stem)-oowunāānookw We all — them not (inclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-wunāāwąąn ustah ku-(stem)-oowunāāwąąn You (pl) — them not
ustah wu-(stem)-wunāāwąąn ustah wu-(stem)-oowunāāwąąn They — them not

* them refers to more than one of s.t. inanimate


VTI class 1a example

ustah ndąąyąątamoowun       I want it not
ustah ktąyąątamoowun
ustah wtąąyąątamoowun          
ustah ndąąyąątamoowunāānah
ustah ndąąyąątamoowunāānookw
ustah ktąąyątamoowunāānah
ustah ktąąyąątamoowunāānookw 
ustah ktąąyąątamoowunāāwah    
ustah wtąąyąątamoowunāāwah    

ustah ndąąyąątamoowunah       I want them (inanimate) not
ustah ktąyąątamoowunah
ustah wtąąyąątamoowunah          
ustah ndąąyąątamoowunāānąąn
ustah ndąąyąątamoowunāānookw     
ustah ktąąyątamoowunāānąąn
ustah ktąąyąątamoowunāānookw 
ustah ktąąyąątamoowunāāwąąn   
ustah wtąąyąątamoowunāāwąąn

VTI class 2 example

ustah ndanahtāāwun       I lose it not
ustah ktanahtāāwun      
ustah wtanahtāāwun           
ustah ndanahtāāwunāānah
ustah ndanahtāāwunāānookw       
ustah ktanahtāāwunāānah
ustah ktanahtāāwunāānookw     
ustah ktanahtāāwunāāwah     
ustah wtanahtāāwunāāwah      

ustah ndanahtāāwunah       I lose them (inanimate) not
ustah ktanahtāāwunah      
ustah wtanahtāāwunah           
ustah ndanahtāāwunāānąąn
ustah ndanahtāāwunāānookw       
ustah ktanahtāāwunāānąąn
ustah ktanahtāāwunāānookw     
ustah ktanahtāāwunāāwąąn    
ustah wtanahtāāwunāāwąąn      

VAIOs indicative objective forms do not shift the stem ending vowel for any forms in this set.

miichuw vaio he eats it.

ustah numiichiiwun. I eat it not (inanimate). I eat it not. (animate)
ustah kumiichiiwun
ustah wumiichiiwun, wumiichiiwunan (obv)
ustah numiichiiwunāānah
ustah numiichiiwunāānookw
ustah kumiichiiwunāānah
ustah kumiichiiwunāānookw
ustah kumiichiiwunāāwah
ustah wumiichiiwunāāwah, wumiichiiwunāāwąąn (obv)

ustah numiichiiwunah. I eat them not (inanimate).
ustah kumiichiiwunah
ustah wumiichiiwunah
ustah numiichiiwunāānąąn
ustah numiichiiwunāānookw
ustah kumiichiiwunāānąąn
ustah kumiichiiwunāānookw
ustah kumiichiiwunāāwąąn
ustah wumiichiiwunāāwąąn

ustah numiichiiwunak. I eat them not (animate).
ustah kumiichiiwunak
ustah wumiichiiwunah (pl obv)
ustah numiichiiwunāānąąk
ustah numiichiiwunāānookw
ustah kumiichiiwunāānąąk
ustah kumiichiiwunāānookw
ustah kumiichiiwunāāwąąk
ustah wumiichiiwunāāwąą  (pl obv)

Ustah nuyah nāāmóowun áhpapoon.
I don’t see it, the chair.

Ustah nuyah nāāmóowunah ahpapóonan.
I don’t see them, the chairs.

Ustah nuwāāwihtāāwun..
[wāāwíhtāāw  vti2 know s.t.]


VTI Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

Absolute Forms

These forms are used to indicate indefiniteness of the verb object. A noun or pronoun is almost always supplied with these forms.

If the noun is plural, it uses the plural inanimate ending (-an), but the verb form is the same for a singular versus and for a plural object.

No obviative endings are used in conjunction with these forms even when the object is animate and obviative which may occur with a VAIO in absolute contruction mode.

VTI indicative mode absolute forms use the same ’m endings’ as do the VAIs in indicative mode. Remember that no (wu) prefix on the 3rd person forms in this m endings paradigm.

Unstable stems (VTI and VAIO) shift vowels in the 3rd person absolute forms, using the same patterns of shifting as VAIs :

(ii) + (w) => (uw) 
(ąą) + (w) => (āāw)

VTI/VAIO Indicative Mode Absolute Forms; Vowel Stems

Noun Required Construction

Meaning Paradigm Final form
I — nu(stem)m nu(stem-short vowel)h
You — ku(stem)m ku(stem-short vowel)h
He or She — —-(stem)w —-(stem-long vowel)w
We — (exclusive) nu(stem-short vowel)hnąą nu(stem-short vowel)hnah
We — (exclusive collective) nu(stem-short vowel)hnookw nu(stem-short vowel)hnookw
We — (inclusive) ku(stem-short vowel)hnąą ku(stem-short vowel)hnah
We — (inclusive collective) ku(stem-short vowel)hnookw ku(stem-short vowel)hnookw
You (pl) — ku(stem-short vowel)hmąą ku(stem-short vowel)hmah
They — —-(stem-long vowel)wak —-(stem-long vowel)k
There is — —-(stem-long vowel)n —-(stem-long vowel)n

*Note: the stem long vowel shortens to a short vowel and adds h
**Note: the sequence (long vowel)(wak) contracts to (long vowel)(k)

It is a rule in Mahican that word ending long vowels shorten and are followed by h pronounced as a breathy h sound.

VTI/VAIO Indicative Mode Absolute Forms; Consonant Stems

Noun Required Construction

Meaning Paradigm Final Form
I — nu-(consonant stem)m nu-(consonant stem)
You — ku-(consonant stem)m ku-(consonant stem)
He or She — —-(consonant stem)w —-(consonant stem)
We — (exclusive) nu-(consonant stem)-hnąą nu-(consonant stem)-hnah
We — (exclusive collective) nu-(consonant stem)-hnookw nu-(consonant stem)-hnookw
We — (inclusive) ku-(consonant stem)-hnąą ku-(consonant stem)-hnah
We — (inclusive collective) ku-(consonant stem)-hnookw ku-(consonant stem)-hnookw
You (pl) — ku-(consonant stem)-hmąą ku-(consonant stem)-hmah
They — —-(consonant stem)-wak —-(consonant stem)-āāk
There is — —-(consonant stem)-un —-(consonant stem)-un

Examples for each VTI stem type


Ndąąyąątam aθun.       I want a rock.
Ktąąyąątam aθun.        
Aąyąątam aθun.      
Ndąąyąątamhnah aθun.   
Ktąąyąątamhnah aθun.    
Ktąąyąątamhmah aθun.   
Aąyąątamāāk aθun.    


Mbāātah aθun.         I brought a rock.
Kŭpāātah  aθun.       
Pāātāāw aθun.         
Mbāātahnah aθun.       
Kpāātahnah aθun.       
Kpāātahmah aθun.      
Pāātāāk aθun.      


Nŭmíichih wahw.      I ate an egg. 
Kŭmíichih wahw.        
Míichuw wahw.      
Nŭmiichíhnah wahw.     
Kŭmiichíhnah wahw.     
Kŭmiichíhmah wahw.    
Míichuwak wahw.     

Example showing how the same form is used for singular and plural objects in this construction mode :

Ndąąyąątam aθún.    
I want a rock.     

Ndąąyąątam aθúnan.  
I want some rocks.  

VAIOs with animate noun objects in this mode use the obviative suffix on the obviative noun, however the verb does not itself take an obviative ending.

kxanuw vaio have s.t., have s.t. animate.            
Ngaxanih pătāātuθ.   
I have a potato.  

Ngaxanih pătāātθak.   
I have some potatoes.   

Kxanuw pătāātθan.   
He has a potato. (sg obviative construct)

Kxanuw pătāātθah.   
He has some potatoes.  (pl obviative construct)

Kxanuwak pătāātθah.   
They have some potatoes.   
Note the beginning pattern of this verb how the a appears in prefixed forms. 

VAIOs with unstable stems

VAIOs with unstable stems follow the same patterns in absolute forms as do the VAIs with unstable stems:

(Unstable stem-ąą) shifts to (stem)-āā before m endings (w) and (wak)

and before 3rd person negative endings (wi) and (wiiwak)

awasihnāāw vaio-ąą omit s.t.

Ndawasihnah piipun.          
I omitted some pepper.  

Awasihnāāw piipun.         
He omitted some pepper.  

Ustah awasihnāāwih piipun.    
He did omit any pepper.  

Unstable VAIO stem-ii) shifts to (u) before (w) and (wak) only, but no shift occurs before negative endings.  

Nsih kāākway.     
I said something.  

Uw kāākway.      
He said something.  

Ustah iiwih kāākway.    
He didn't say a thing  

Examples showing difference between absolute and objective forms:

Ndąąyąątam tpąąkw.
I want a bean.  (absolute)

Ndąąyąątam tpąąkwan.
I want some beans.  (absolute)

Ndąąyąątamun nun tpąąkw.
I want that bean.   (objective)

Ndąąyąątamunah niin tpąąkwan.
I want those beans.   (objective)


Negative VTI and VAIO Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

Negatives are formed the regular way, with the negative suffix inserted between the stem and the m endings. Consonant ending stems insert (oo) before the negative suffix (wii). 1st and 2nd person forms optionally use a truncated ending (w).

VTI Negative Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

Paradigm Meaning
ustah nu-(stem)-(oo)-w* I — not a noun; some nouns
ustah ku-(stem)-(oo)-w* You — not a noun; some nouns
ustah —-(stem)-(oo)-wih He or She — not a noun; some nouns
ustah nu-(stem)-(oo)-wíhnah We — not a noun; some nouns (excl)
ustah nu-(stem)-(oo)-wíhnookw We all — not a noun; some nouns (excl)
ustah ku-(stem)-(oo)-wíhnah We — not a noun; some nouns (incl)
ustah ku-(stem)-(oo)-wíhnookw We all — not a noun; some nouns (incl)
ustah ku-(stem)-(oo)-wíhmah You (pl) — not a noun; some nouns
ustah —-(stem)-(oo)-wíik** They — not a noun; some nouns

(Consonant stems insert (oo) before negative endings)
*may use non-truncated ending prefix(—)(oo)wih
**contracts from -wiiwak

VTI1a ąąyąątam

ustah ndąąyątamóow or ndąąyątamóowih
ustah ktąąyątamóow or nktąąyątamóowih 
ustah ąąyąątamoowih
ustah ndąąyąątamoowíhnah
ustah ndąąyąątamoowíhnookw
ustah ktąąyąątamoowíhnah 
ustah ktąąyąątamoowíhnookw
ustah ndąąyąątamoowíhmah
ustah ąąyąątamoowíik

VTI2 pāātāāw

ustah mbāātāāw or ustah mbāātāāwih
ustah kpāātāāw or ustah kpāātāāwih 
ustah pāātāāwih
ustah mbāātāāwihnah
ustah mbāātāāwihnookw
ustah kpāātāāwihnah
ustah kpāātāāwihnookw
ustah kpāātāāwihmah 
ustah pāātāāwiik

Examples showing difference between absolute and objective forms:

Ustah ndąąyąątamoow tpąąkw.
I do not want a bean.  (absolute)

Ustah ndąąyąątamoow tpąąkwan.
I do not want any beans.  (absolute)

Ustah ndąąyąątamoowun nun tpąąkw.
I do not want that bean.   (objective)

Ustah ndąąyąątamoowunah niin tpąąkwan.
I do not want those beans.   (objective)


Unstable stems and negative absolute forms

(This applies to VAIOs with unstable stems such as miichuw)

Verbs listed as ending in (uw) revert to their true stem vowel (ii) before all negative endings.

Verbs with unstable vaio stems ending in (ąą) are listed as ending in (āāw) and like the corresponding VAIs, they use (āā) for 3rd person negatives in absolute forms, otherwise they inflect using (ąą)

VAIO Unstable Stems Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

Stem ending vowel type 3rd sg 3rd pl Negative 3rd sg Negative 3rd pl
(stem-ąą) (stem-āāw) (stem-āāk) ustah (stem-āāwih) ustah (stem-āāwiiwak)
(stem-ii) (stem-uw) (stem-uwak) ustah (stem-iiwih) ustah (stem-iiwiiwak)

(míichuw) is a Class3 VTI with an unstable stem ending in (ii)

Míichuw tpąąkw. 
He ate a bean.

Numíichih tpąąkwan. 
I ate some beans.

Ustah miichíiwih tpąąkw. 
He did not eat a bean.

Ustah numiichíiwih tpąąkwan. 
I did not eat any beans.

VAIO verbs which end in (uw) congugate like míichuw.

Example: awa vaio he says it (he says something)
stem = (ii) irregular beginning pattern should be noted

Objective forms: 
nsiin  I said it.

Absolute forms, with noun supplied as a pronoun kāākway:

nsih kāākway   I said something. 
ksih kāākway
awah  kāākway 
nsihnah kāākway
ksihnah kāākway
ksimah kāākway
awāāk kāākway

Negative Objective

ustah nsiiwun  I said it not
ustah ksiiwun  
ustah wsiiwun

Negative Absolute
ustah nsiiw kāākway.  I did not say something.
ustah ksiiw kāākway
ustah iiwih kāākway

uwa may also conjugate as a vai: he says  stem = (ii) 

VAI Indicative Mode

nsih  I said

VAI Indicative Mode Negatives

ustah nsiiw I didn't say
ustah ksiiw
ustah iiwih

Example of a VAIO with an unstable stem ending in (ąą)

awasihnāāw vaio-ąą omit s.t.

Ustah awasihnāāwih wúyāāθ.   
He did not omit any meat.  (3rd person vowel shift)

Ustah ndawasihnąąwih wúyāāθ.   
I did not omit any meat.  (non 3rd person form with no vowel shift)


VTI Indefinite subject forms

The expected X subject form (using the verb ąąyąątam ‘he wants s.t.’ as an example) translated to ‘it is wanted’ is not included in the paradigms we have discussed. A ‘derived’ verb is instead used to say ‘it is wanted’ The verb is called derived because it is formed from the VTI stem and then becomes a VII.

How to form a derived passive verb:  

Remove the vti class marker (am) or (um) or (āā)  
Add (ąąθuw) to the stem  
Conjugate using VII paradigms 

Example with ąąyąątam


(ąąyąąt) + (ąąθuw)

It is wanted. 

They are wanted. 

How it is wanted. 

That which is wanted.

Aąyąątam wuθkih-ahpapoon.  
He wants a new chair.  

Wtąąyąątamun nih wuθkih-ahpapoon. 
He wants that new chair.  

Wuθkih-ahpapoon ąąyąątąąθuw.  
The new chair was wanted.

áhtāāw vti2 put s.t. down

ahtąąθuw  vii be put down, it is put down

chihkuθum vti1b burn s.t.

chihkuθąąθuw vii be burnt

maxkiinuw paint s.t.

maxkiinąąθuw vii be painted

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