Mahican VAI Imperatives

Commands or requests may be formulated and verbs conjugated for this purpose are said to be in the imperative mode.

Commands have an implied animate subject: you – you (plural) -we (you and I) – we (all of us).

Different endings indicate which subject is being used for the command.

No personal prefixes are needed or used in this mode.

Mahican also uses delayed imperatives which are commands with special endings that pertain to a future time.

Commands may exist as the only verb in the sentence or may be in a subordinate clause in which case a conjunct verb is used.

VAI Imperative

Subject Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm
2nd sg (You) (vowel stem)-h (consonant stem)-ih
2nd pl (You pl) (vowel stem)-kw (consonant stem)-ookw
12s (We, you and I) (vowel stem)-tąąw (consonant stem)-ootąąw
12 (We, all of us) (vowel stem)-tookw (consonant stem)-ootookw
Noh ąątookw.                      
Let’s all go there.
(stem)-(12 imperative)

Wąąk ih.
Say it again.
(stem)-(2s imperative)

Ahkwih-anahkah. Stop doing that. (Sw44)

Nan ayiitąąw. Let’s (exclusive) stay here. (s134)

Nan atiikw. Stay (you pl) here (s134)

Nah wih! Come here! 

Anumsiikw maawih wunihtaakw.  Go and get ready. (mlh29)

Chiikapih Be still, be quiet. (s37)  cf chiikapuw vai

Mayanapih! Be still, lie still! 

Kăθah! Be quiet, stop speaking, shut up! (Sw182-119, av119,j139)

Kăθaatuyah! Shut the heck up! (considered impolite) (Sw182) 
Note: contains -utuyaa- which is a mild mild expletive, also called an objurgative medial. Ref. Connor Quinn

Katąątanahkah. Work quickly. (s113)

Turn around.

kwúnupiiw vai-s turn around

Piiskwaaθuwak paθúkwiikw!
Girls stand up!

paθúkwiiw vai stand up (P mlh30) 

Anumθiitąąw. Let’s go. (you and me) (s72)
Anumθiikw. Leave. (you pl)
Anumθiitookw. We will go. Let’s all go. (s72)
Anumuθih. Go! (s72)

anumθuw vai go, leave

Anumihksihnah. Run away quickly. (s113)
Anumihksihnąąkw. Run away quickly (you pl). 

anumihksihnaaw vai-ąą run away quickly

Go home.
mąąchiiw vai-s go home

Watch out!
nxąąθuw he watches out, he is wary


Preverbs with Imperative

Preverbs with imperative forms use the neutral uninflected form of the preverb:

Stop talking!

ahkwih-ąąptóonhaaw vai-s stop speaking, talking

Start talking!
nootih-ąąptóonhaawvai-s start talking 

Go to sleep!

Come and eat.

Special cases

Stems ending in (-xiin) drop the final (n) before some imperative endings.
chiikaniixiin vai lie down, lie still
kiisiixiin vai be ready to use, be all set (s.t. animate) (HA19, HA27)

Lie still.

(you pl) Lie down.

Let's lie down (you and me).

Let's all lie down.

Be ready. 

Be ready. (you pl)

Let's be ready. (all of us)

Let's all be ready. (you and I)

VOTIs differ only in the 2nd person singular imperative forms from normal VAIs:

(stem-am) + (h) = (stem-ah)

(stem-um) + (h) = (ih)

VAI Imperative Special Cases

Subject VAI (stem-xiin) VOTI1a (stem-am) paradigm VOTI1b (stem-um) paradigm
2nd sg (You) (stem-xii)-h (stem)-ah (stem)-ih
2nd pl (You pl) (stem-xii)-kw (stem-am)-ookw (stem-um)-ookw
12s (We) (stem-xiin)-ootąąw (stem-am)-ootąąw (stem-um)-ootąąw
12p (We all) (stem-xiin)-ootookw (stem-am)-ootookw (stem-um)-ootookw


kxanawąątam voti1a pay attention, keep, retain, remember (letters, verses etc) (s78)

wunuθtam voti1a believe (wunustam) (s39)

Kxanawąątah. Pay attention! 
Wunih-kxanawąątamookw. Pay (you pl) attention.

Wunuθtah. Be obedient. Listen well. (s105)
Wunuθtamookw. Listen well. Be obedient. (you pl)(s105) 
Wunuθtamootąąw. Let’s be obedient. (s105) 

VAI Delayed Imperative Mode

The delayed imperative mode is used for commands that should be carried out at a later time.
2nd person sg and pl forms exist.

Subject VAI (vowel stem) VAI (consonant stem)
2nd sg (You) (—-)-mah (—-)-oomah
2nd pl (You pl) (—-)-maakw (—-)-oomaakw


Note: I found no delayed imperatives built in consonant ending stems in the available written materials but would expect such forms to be constructed as above.

VAI Prohibitive Mode

The prohibitive mode is used for commands of the type, ‘thou shalt not’ or ‘Do not’ and represent the negative form of the imperative mode

Negative commands or prohibitive statements use modified endings which include the negative suffix (oo)(w)(ii)

One of the prohibitive particles: chih, chiin, chiinih precedes negative commands in this mode. Chiin is like saying “don’t.”

Unspoken Subject Paradigm
2nd sg (You) chiin (—)han
2nd pl (You pl) chiin (—)haakw

As always, long vowels shorten before h

Chiin kamuk ahaakw.
Don’t go there. (you pl)

Chiin kaakway aniitahahan.
Don’t get excited.

Chiin kamuk ahan.
Don’t go there.
(aaw vai he goes)
Chii nah ach aawu.
Dont even go there.

Chiin anahkahan.
Don’t work.

Chiinih siiwaanutamhan. 
Don’t be sad. (voti1a)

Chiinih siiwaanutamhaakw.
Don’t (you pl) be sad. 

Chih chiikaniixiinhan.
Don’t lie down. (vai ending in (-xiin))

Imperative using the subordinative mode:

Use of the subordinative mode denotes a mild suggestion.
Although the interpretation is that of a command, these forms use a prefix and endings appropriate for the participant who is the object of the command.
Thus, these forms may be used for commands which specify another person who is involved. Negative forms are also prefixed and do not use a negative verb ending.

Let me eat.  
Let us eat.  

Chiin kaakway ksiiwaanŭtam. 
Don't be troubled (s37) 

Chiin wtąąn. Don't let him go. 

Injunctive conjunct mode

Uses a 3rd person conjunct form without initial change and a modified ending, the injunctive suffix -ch to form third person commands.
Consonant stems add -uch instead of the usual conjunct ending.

miitθuw eat 
Let him eat. 
pumąąwuθuw live
Pumąąwuθiich. Let him live. (injunctive command) (s90)

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