Mahican VAI Conjunct Changed Subjunctive

This mode is used for completed events that occurred prior to the time frame of the main clause.

The PV (aatanih-) ‘when’ is often used to introduce these types of sub-phrases. In the context of the changed subjunctive conjunct (aatanih-) ‘when’ can be thought of as having the meaning of ‘after that time when’ which places the conjunct phrase in the past relative to the main phrase.

"After I turned three, my Mom worked."  

Sometimes aatanih– is not used, but the meaning of ‘where’ is still implied.

This mode may be used for past events that occurred prior to another past event as in the example above, or may be used for future events that will precede another event.

"When (or after) his mother arrives, he will take her to the store."  

The changed subjunctive conjunct mode uses initial change and adds the modal ending -ah after the appropriate conjunct ending.


Aātanih-kawiitah, mxih wunamanuθuw.   
After he slept, he used to feel very well.  

Sąąwah aatan-miitθíitah sąąwah aniitahah, "kahnah wíikan."   
Right away after he ate right away he thought, "wow that tasted good."

Aātan- pxaanum -mahchihnąątah wtayoom siiwaanŭtam.   
When the woman died her son became sad.  
mahchihnaaw vai-ąą die

Noh waamąąnah nŭmáwih-anahkah.  
When I left from there I went working.  
(wum+ah+ah)+initial change 

Aātanih-payąąnah kŭmáwih-káwih.   
When (or after) I came you went to sleep.  

vs changed conjunct:     

Káwih aatan-pąąyah.  
You were sleeping when (at the time when) I came.  

Nih paayąąyąąnah ngátaaw-míitsθih.  
When I got there I wanted to eat.  

(paayąąyąąnah is the changed subjunctive conjunct form of the verb (paaw). In this case (aatanih-) is omitted so initial change is necessary on the verb stem (pąą) => (paayąą and conjunct ending are then added).

Nguk wiinamanθuw aatanih-miitθiit.  
My mother got sick while she was eating.  (changed conjunct, no modal ending)

Nguk wiinamanθuw aatanih-miitθiitah.  
My mother got sick after she ate.  (changed subjunctive conjunct, with modal ending)

‘changed conjunct’ with aatanih– tends to indicate action during the same time frame.

‘changed subjunctive conjunct’ with aatanih– indicates action in a preceding time frame for the sub-clause

(Reference Ives Goddard Delaware Verbal Morphology)


Kiisihpv completed action

Ndanumúθih kiisih-aankwih-paasuyąąnah.   
I left after I waited awhile  

Preferred word order follows the same pattern as locatives, the secondary (conjunct) clause tends to be stated first.

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