VTI Independent Indicative Mode

Transitive inanimate verbs (VTIs), like VAIs, have an animate subject (I, you, him or her or animate noun, we, ye, they or plural animate noun or two or more animate nouns).

VTIs, being transitive, have an object (it, them) which is obligatorily inanimate in gender.

VTIs talk about ‘people doing stuff with stuff’ and take the form :

subject - verb - object  

nŭmíichiin        I - eat - it  
kŭmiichíinal      You - eat - them (inanimate plural)  

VAIOs are verbs which conjugate like VTIs but are related to another type of verb (VAIs). VAIO stands for verb animate intransitive +object. These verbs will be integrated into the chapters pertaining to VTIs because they conjugate like VTIs. VAIOs however differ in one key way from VTIs in that the object of a VAIO can be either animate or inanimate.

VTIs may be conjugated into Indicative mode (objective construction or absolute construction), Subordinative mode, all four Conjunct Modes, and Imperative Mode.

VTIs are listed under their 3p sg indicative mode, absolute form in the dictionary.

To conjugate a verb one must learn the typical ways the prefixes interact with the verb stem (beginnings patterns) and the ways the endings interact with the verb stem (endings patterns)

Classes of VTI

VTI stems come in 3 classes, based on a stem ending phoneme called a class marker.

Class 1a VTIs always end in (am).

Class 1b VTIs use the (um) class marker.

Class 2 uses the (oo) marker which changes to (aw) in the conjunct.

Class 3 VTIs are few in number and have no class marker. Stems endings in (ii), (nd) and (m).

         pŭmutáachiind he drags s.t. along  
         longwaam vti3 he dreams about s.t.   
         peettaachiind vti3 he drags s.t. to here  
         mŭláam he smells s.t.   
         wund he gets it from somewhere  
         piind he puts s.t. on (clothing)  
         ktaam he eats all of it  
         neem he sees it  
         miichuw he eats it (why not a vaio?) (because only takes inanimate object)  

VTI or Transitive Inanimate Verb Stems

Verb ending Stem Stem type Example Meaning
–am (stem-am) vti1a katáatam he wants s.t
–um (stem-um) vti1b lúnum he does it
–oow (stem-oo) vti2 péetoow he brings it
–uw (stem-ii) vti3 míichuw he eats it
–m (stem-m) vti3 neem he sees it
–nd (stem-nd) vti3 piind he puts it on

VAIOs have diverse stem endings similar to the VAIs and these are listed below for reference. Note that some VAIOs have unstable stems and shift the stem vowel according to characteristic patterns in the 3rd person forms whereas stable verbs do not undergo this shift.

VAIO or Animate Intransitive + Object Verb Stems

Verb ending Stem Stem type Example Meaning
–iiw (stem-ii) vaio stable lóowiiw pass by s.t.
–eew (stem-ee) vaio stable munéew drink s.t.
–uw (stem-ii) vaio unstable uw say s.t
–puw (stem-pwii) vaio unstable ndúpuw cook s.t.
–kuw (stem-kwii) vaio unstable akúw wear s.t.
–eew (stem-aa) vaio unstable wihkwíhleew run out of s.t.
–iin (stem-iin) vaio consonant makwíisiin have s.t. swell up
–k (stem-k) vaio consonant meek give s.t. away
–kw (stem-kw) vaio consonant nhíinaakw be lucky for s.t.
–l (stem-l) vaio consonant paaláakchehl jump over s.t.

VTI Indicative Mode Overview

The VTI Independent Indicative supports two types of construction:

Objective Object Mode with Noun Optional Construction

Néemun. 
I saw it.  

Néemun ahpapoon.  
I saw it, the chair.  

Néemunal niil ahpapoonal.   
I saw them - those chairs.  

This mode refers to specific, definite objects. The verb (neemun) needs no noun, because the verb itself includes a subject, and a definite specific inanimate object translated as ‘it’. Both the speaker and listener should know exactly what is the identity of ‘it’ when this type of construction is used. A noun may be used, in which case the ‘’it’‘ included in the verb is understood as referring to that noun object specifically. The English translation therefore will use the definite article ’‘the’‘ to address the object “it”.

Absolute or Noun Required Construction

Neem kweek. 
I saw s.t.  

Neem ahpapoon. 
I saw a chair.  

Neem ahpapoonal. 
I saw some chairs.  

Néemook túndeew.  
They saw a fire.  

This is the mode one uses when speaking of an object in a non-specific way. In this mode, the verb (neem) only contains information about the subject and that an object of some type and of some quantity will follow. Therefore a verb in this mode cannot stand alone, a noun must be added. The noun then tells us what kind of object is being talking about, in generic terms and number. The translation in English uses one of the indefinite articles ‘a’ or ‘some’. The verb form is the same regardless of whether the object is singular or plural. This underscores how lacking this mode is in terms of definiteness.

 

 

Go to VTI Practicum 1 Basics

 

Conjugation Paradigms

Objective VTI constructs use prefixes and endings known as the ‘’n endings’’

Singular Object Forms:

These forms are used when the object is singular and will be referred to as ‘it.’

VTI Indicative Mode Objective Forms (with singular object)

Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm Meaning
nu-(vowel stem)-n nu-(consonant stem)-un I — it
ku-(vowel stem)-n ku-(consonant stem)-un You — it
wu-(vowel stem)-n wu-(consonant stem)-un He or She — it
nu-(vowel stem)-neen nu-(consonant stem)-uneen We — it (exclusive)
ku-(vowel stem)-neen ku-(consonant stem)-uneen We — it (inclusive)
ku-(vowel stem)-neewa ku-(consonant stem)-uneewa Ye — it
wu-(vowel stem)-neewa wu-(consonant stem)-uneewa They — it

Note the (wu) prefix in the 3rd person forms of the n ending set.

Consonant ending stems insert (u) before the n endings, whereas vowel ending stems do not.

Examples for each stem type:

VTI class 1a example

    ngatáatamun       I want it   
    katáatamun
    kwatáatamun          
    ngataatamúneen     
    kataatamúneen 
    kataatamunéewa    
    kwataatamunéewa    

VTI class 1b example

    ndulŭnúmun      I did it  
    ktulŭnúmun        
    wtulŭnúmun        
    ndulŭnumúneen   
    ktulŭnumúneen    
    ktulŭnumunéewa   
    wtulŭnumunéewa 

VTI class 2 example

    mbéetoon       I brought it  
    kupéetoon      
    péetoon           
    mbeetóoneen       
    kŭpeetóoneen     
    kŭpeetoonéewa     
    peetoonéewa      

VTI Class 3 example

    numíichiin         I ate it   
    kumíichiin           
    míichiin              
    numiichíineen         
    kumiichíineen      
    kumiichiinéewa        
    miichiinéewa

VAIOs conjugate indicative objective forms like (miichuw) and do not shift the stem ending vowel for any forms in this set.

Munéew vaio he drinks it.

Numúneen. I drank it.  
Kumúneen
Wumúneen
Numunéeneen
Kumunéeneen
Kumuneenéewa
Wumuneenéewa

Examples


Word List:
 mshaatam vti1a think about s.t.. remember s.t.
 naatum  get s.t., go after s.t. 
 wuláhtoow vti2 put s.t. away
 wund vti3 get it from somewhere
 kang- kangu- pv can do s.t. that was impossible
 kíimii- pv secretly
 ngúmee pc always (pronounced like “gó mæ”)

Nii numusháatamun.   (nu(mshaatam)un)
I remember it.

Yéelak ngíimii-wúndun asún.
Shukw ngúmee kunáatumun. 
I secretly got the rock from over there. But you always were going after it.

Kii ha kumusháatamun kweek éeyan?
Do you remember what you said?

Kángu- aa ha nu -kiish-lúnumun? Kwángu- aa ha nu -kiish-lúnumun?
Can you do it? Can he do it?
(Reference John O'Meara Munsee Delaware Dictionary) 

Néeka teet musháatamun.
He might remember it.

Niilóona noolahtóoneen apwáan.
We put the bread away.

Kiilóona kŭchanu-lunumúneen.
We did it in error.

Kiilóowa aa kangu-naatamunéewa apwáan.
Ye can get the bread.

Kway neekáawa kwata-miichiinéewa apwáan.
They want to eat the bread now.

 

Go to VTI Indicative Mode Practicum 2 Objective 1

 

Plural Object Forms:

These forms are used when the object is plural and will be referred to as ‘them.’ Only some of these forms add the plural ending (-al) to the regular verb ending.

 

VTI Indicative Mode Objective Forms (with plural object)

Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm Meaning
nu-(vowel stem)-n-al nu-(consonant stem)-un-al I — them*
ku-(vowel stem)-n-al ku-(consonant stem)-un-al You — them
wu-(vowel stem)-n-al wu-(consonant stem)-un-al He or She — them
nu-(vowel stem)-neen** nu-(consonant stem)-uneen** We — them (exclusive)
ku-(vowel stem)-neen** ku-(consonant stem)-uneen** We — them (inclusive)
ku-(vowel stem)-neewa** ku-(consonant stem)-uneewa** Ye — them
wu-(vowel stem)-neewa** wu-(consonant stem)-uneewa** They — them

* them refers to more than one of s.t. inanimate
** identical to forms with sg object

The verb katáatam vti1a he wants it

ngataatamúnal  I want them  
kataatamúnal       
kwataatamúnal  
ngataatamúneen     
kataatamúneen  
kataatamunéewa     
kwataatamunéewa 

Examples:


Nii numushaatamúnal.   
(nu(mshaatam)un-al)
I remember the things.

Yéelak ngíimii-wúndunal asúnal.
Shukw ngúmee kunaatumúnal. 
I secretly got them, the rocks, from over there. But you always were going after them.

Kii ha kumushaatamúnal kweekwiil éeyan?
Do you remember the things you said?

Kwángu- aa ha nu -kiish-lunumúnal? 
Can he do those things?

Néeka teet musháatamunal kiishooxkw-ooskiinjkwahíikanal. 
He might remember them, his sunglasses.

Niilóona noolahtóoneen shookulapwáanshal. 
We put the cookies away.

Kiilóona kŭchanu-lunumúneen.
We did it, them in error.

Kiilóowa aa kangu-naatamunéewa shookulapwáanshal.
Ye can get the cookies.

Kway neekáawa kwata-miichiinéewa shookulapwáanshal. 
They want to eat them, the cookies now.

Note that sg and plural object forms are the same for we, ye and they subjects:

Niilóona neemuneen máhksun.  
Niilóona neemuneen mahksúnal.  

Notes on VAIOs

VAIOs handle objects differently. The 3rd person object of a VAIO can be animate or inanimate.

(VAIOs are animate intransitive verbs + object, also called pseudo-intransitive verbs)

For more information, see: O’Meara, John. 1992. “Intransitive Verbs with Secondary Objects in Munsee Delaware.” W. Cowan, ed., Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Algonquian Conference, pp. 322–333. Ottawa: Carleton University.

VAIOs with an animate object

If the animate object of a VAIO is obviative, then an obviative ending is added. This can occur if both the subject and the object are animate 3rd persons or animate nouns.

If the animate object of a VAIO is plural and non-obviative, then the animate plural ending (ak) is added, but only to those forms which use an ending of this type, i.e. the sg 1st and 2nd person subject forms.

VAIOs with an inanimate object

If the inanimate object of a VAIO is singular, no additional endings are required. Inanimate objects are never obviative.

If the inanimate object of a VAIO is plural, then it uses the inanimate plural ending (-al) after the ‘n endings’ but only for forms with 1st, 2nd and 3rd person singular subjects (I, you, he)

VAIO Forms with Plural or Obviative Object

Sg Animate Object Pl Animate Object Form Sg Inanimate Object Pl Inanimate Object
nu-(stem)-un nu-(stem)-un-ak 1st sg nu-(stem)-un nu-(stem)-un-al
ku-(stem)-un ku-(stem)-un-ak 2nd sg ku-(stem)-un ku-(stem)-un-al
wu-(stem)-un-al wu-(stem)-un-al 3rd sg wu-(stem)-un wu-(stem)-un-al
nu-(stem)-uneen nu-(stem)-uneen 1st pl nu-(stem)-uneen nu-(stem)-uneen
ku-(stem)-uneen ku-(stem)-uneen 2+1pl ku-(stem)-uneen ku-(stem)-uneen
ku-(stem)-uneewa ku-(stem)-uneewa 2nd pl ku-(stem)-uneewa ku-(stem)-uneewa
Not attested* Not attested* 3rd pl wu-(stem)-uneewa wu-(stem)-uneewa

* I found no examples of 3rd plural subject forms with obviative object in the dictionary or in the Delaware Verbal Morphology book or in John O’Meara’s article ‘Intransitive Verbs with Secondary Objects in Munsee Delaware’. There is a way to use a plural subject “they” with an animate object by using absolute state construction. Such forms will be discussed shortly.

Examples with animate and obviative objects.

Niik ha ndohpunúmak. Nii uch ndupwíinak.  
Those are my potatoes. I will cook them.  

Niil ha wtohpunúmal. Néeka uch ndupwíinal.   
Those are his potatoes. He will cook them.  

Example with an inanimate object

Niil ha numalaaxwsíital. Nii uch ndupwíinal.   

 

Go to VTI Indicative Mode Practicum 3 Objective Construction 2

Negative Indicative Mode Objective Forms

Negatives are formed in the following manner:

First add (wu) to the stem then the appropriate n ending and prefix.
Stems ending in consonants insert (-oo-) before (wu)

VTI Negative Indicative Mode Objective Forms with singular object

Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm Meaning
mah nu-(stem)-wun mah nu-(stem)-oowun I — it not
mah ku-(stem)-wun mah ku-(stem)-oowun You — it not
mah wu-(stem)-wun mah wu-(stem)-oowun He or She — it not
mah nu-(stem)-wuneen mah nu-(stem)-oowuneen We — it not (exclusive)
mah ku-(stem)-wuneen mah ku-(stem)-oowuneen We — it not (inclusive)
mah ku-(stem)-wuneewa mah ku-(stem)-oowuneewa Ye — it not
mah wu-(stem)-wuneewa mah wu-(stem)-oowuneewa They — it not

VTI Negative Indicative Mode Objective Forms with plural object

Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm Meaning
mah nu-(stem)-wunal mah nu-(stem)-oowunal I — them* not
mah ku-(stem)-wunal mah ku-(stem)-oowunal You — them not
mah wu-(stem)-wunal mah wu-(stem)-oowunal He or She — them not
mah nu-(stem)-wuneen** mah nu-(stem)-oowuneen** We — them not (exclusive)
mah ku-(stem)-wuneen** mah ku-(stem)-oowuneen** We — them not (inclusive)
mah ku-(stem)-wuneewa** mah ku-(stem)-oowuneewa** Ye — them not
mah wu-(stem)-wuneewa** mah wu-(stem)-oowuneewa** They — them not

* them refers to more than one of s.t. inanimate
** identical to sg object forms

Examples

mah ndulŭnumóowun         I did it not  
mah ktulŭnumoowun        
mah wtulunumóowun        
mah ndulŭnumóowŭneen     
mah ktulŭnumóowŭneen       
mah ktulŭnumoowunéewa     
mah wtulŭnumoowunéewa 

mah mbeetóowŭnal      I brought them not   
mah kŭpeetóowŭnal          
mah peetóowŭnal             
mah mbeetóowuneen      
mah kŭpeetóowuneen           
mah kŭpeetoowunéewa       
mah peetoowunéewa   


Mah nii neemóowun áhpapoon.
I don’t see it, the chair.

Mah nii neemóowunal ahpapóonal.
I don’t see them, the chairs.

Mah kii kpundamóowun.
You didn’t hear it.

Mah nii nuweewihtóowun.
Nii nuweewíhtoon.
[weewíhtoow  know s.t.]

Mah ngataatamóowun apwáan.
I do not want the bread. 

Mah ngataatamóowunal mahksúnal.
I do not want the shoes. 

Kii mah koolahtóowun apwáan.
You didn't put away the bread. 

Máhta néeka kwata-peetóowun kshulpúlum. 
You didn't want to bring your money. 

Mah niilóona ngataatamóowuneen apíinay. 
We did not want the bed.

Mah niilóona ngataatamóowuneen apíinayal. 
We did not want the beds.

Mah kiilóona neemoowuneen apíinay.
We didn't see it, the bed.

Mah kumunoowunéewa mbuy.
Ye didn't drink the water. 

Mah oolahtoowunéewa waapasáanayal.
They didn't put away the blankets.

 

Go to VTI Indicative Mode Practicum 4 Objective Negatives

VTI Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

Absolute Forms

These are used to indicate indefiniteness of the verb object. A noun is almost always supplied with these forms.

If the required noun is plural, it uses the plural inanimate ending (-al), but the verb form does not change endings for a singular versus a plural object.

No obviative endings are used in conjunction with these forms because the object is always inanimate.

VTI indicative mode absolute forms use ’m endings’ just like the VAIs in indicative mode. Note the absence of (wu) prefixes on 3rd person forms.

Unstable stems (VTI and VAIO) shift vowels in the 3rd person absolute forms, using the same patterns of shifting as VAIs :

(ii) + (w) => (uw) 
(aa) + (w) => (ee)

VTI/VAIO Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

Noun Required Construction

vowel stem consonant stem Meaning
nu-(vowel stem)-m* nu-(consonant stem) I — a noun; some nouns
ku-(vowel stem)-m* ku-(consonant stem) You — a noun; some nouns
—-(vowel stem)-w —-(consonant stem) He or She — a noun; some nouns
nu-(vowel stem)-hna nu-(consonant stem)-óhna We — a noun; some nouns (excl)
ku-(vowel stem)-hna ku-(consonant stem)-óhna We — a noun; some nouns (incl)
ku-(vowel stem)-hmwa ku-(consonant stem)-óhmwa Ye — a noun; some nouns
—-(vowel stem)-wak —-(consonant stem)-ook They — a noun; some nouns

*(m) optionally drops

Verb roots ending in consonants add (oo) before the plural subject endings

(oo) + (wak) morphs to (-ook)

Examples for each VTI stem type

VTI1a

Ngatáatam asún       I want a rock.
Katáatam asún.        
Katáatam asún.      
Ngataatamóhna asún.   
Kataatamóhna asún.    
Kataatamóhmwa asún.   
Katáatamook asún.    

VTI1b

Ndáyum asún          I got a rock.
Ktáyum asún.          
Ayúm asún         
Ndayumóhna asún       
Ktayumóhna asún       
Ktayumóhmwa asún       
Ayúmook asún

VTI2

Mbéeto asún         I brought a rock.
Kŭpéeto  asún.       
Péetoow asún.         
Mbeetóhna asún.       
Kpeetóhna asún.       
Kpeetóhmwa asún.      
Peetóowak asún.      

VTI3

Nŭmíichi wahw*       I ate an egg. 
Kŭmíichi wahw.        
Míichuw wahw.      
Nŭmiichíhna wahw.     
Kŭmiichíhna wahw.     
Kŭmiichíhmwa wahw.    
Míichuwak wahw.     

*Some say wáhwal for ‘an egg’ and wáhwalal for ‘eggs’
(Reference Ives Goddard; Linguistic Variation in a Small Speech Community: The Personal Dialects of Moraviantown Delaware; Anthropological Linguistics;Volume 52, Number 1, Spring 2010;pp. 1-48)

Example showing how the same form is used for singular and plural objects in this construction mode :

Ngatáatam asún.    
I want a rock.     

Ngatáatam asúnal.  
I want some rocks.  

Examples showing use of the optional (m) ending, relevant only for vowel ending stems in the 1st and 2nd sg, just like VAIs:

Mbéeto asún.          
I brought a rock.

Mbéetoom asún.         
I brought a rock. 

Kpéeto  asún          
You brought a rock.

Kpéetoom  asúnal.     
You brought some rocks.

VAIOs with animate noun objects in this mode use the obviative suffix on the obviative noun, however the verb does not itself take an obviative ending.

kxanuw vaio have s.t., have s.t. animate.            
Ngaxani pambíil.   
I have a book.  

Ngaxani pambíilak.   
I have some books.   

Nxanuw pambíilal.   
He has a book (or some books.)  
(obviative construct)

Obviative plural subject forms

VAIOs in this mode have do have attested forms for a plural 3rd person subject, and these may be used as a workaround for situations where one may have wished to use an objective plural 3rd person subject form, which are unattested.

Nxanuwak pambíilal.   
They have some books.   

VAIOs with unstable stems

VAIOs with unstable stems follow the same patterns here as the VAIs with unstable stems:

(Unstable stem-aa) shifts to (stem)-ee before m endings (w) and (wak)

and before 3rd person negative endings (wi) and (wiiwak)

Wihkwíhla pépul.          
I ran put of pepper.  

Wihwíhleew pépul.         
He ran out of pepper.  

Mah wihwihléewi pépul.    
He ran out of pepper not.  

Unstable VAIO stem-ii) shifts to (u) before (w) and (wak) only, and not before negative endings.  

Nzi kweekw.     
I said something.  

Uw kweekw.      
He said something.  

Mah iiwu kweekw.    
He didn't say a thing  

Examples:


Ngatáatam maaláxkwsíit.
I want a bean.

Ngatáatam maalaxkwsíital.
I want some beans.

Kii móxa katáatam wuskii-apíinay.
You very much want a new bed.

Néeka katáatam wtéehim.
She wants a strawberry.

Ngataatamóhna wteehíimal.
We want some strawberries.

Kiilóona kataatamóhna áhpapoon.
We want a chair.

Kiilóowa ha kataatamóhmwa wuskii-apíinay?
Do ye want a new bed?

Neekáawa katáatamook wiiskíimal.
They want some grapes.

 

Go to VTI Indicative Mode Practicum 5 Absolute Constructs

VTI and VAIO Negative Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

These are formed the regular way, with the negative suffix inserted between the stem and the m endings. Consonant ending stems insert (oo) before the negative suffix (w) and like always the final (m) or (w) of the singular m endings drop after the negative suffix.

VTI Negative Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

Paradigm Meaning
mah nu-(stem)-(oo)-wi I — not a noun; some nouns
mah ku-(stem)-(oo)-wi You — not a noun; some nouns
mah —-(stem)-(oo)-wi He or She — not a noun; some nouns
mah nu-(stem)-(oo)-wíhna We — not a noun; some nouns (excl)
mah ku-(stem)-(oo)-wíhna We — not a noun; some nouns (incl)
mah ku-(stem)-(oo)-wíhmwa Ye — not a noun; some nouns
mah —-(stem)-(oo)-wíiwak They — not a noun; some nouns

(Consonant stems insert (oo) before negative endings)
Examples per verb type:
VTI1a kataatam

ngataatamóowi
kataatamóowi 
kataatamóowi
ngataatamoowíhna 
kataatamoowíhna 
kataatamoowíhmwa 
kataatamoowíiwak

VTI1b lunum

ndulŭnumóowi
ktulŭnumóowi 
lunumóowi
ndulŭnumoowíhna 
ktulŭnumoowíhna 
ktulŭnumoowíhmwa 
lunumunoowíiwak

VTI2 peetoow

mbeetóowi
kpeetóowi 
peetóowi
mbeetoowíhna 
kpeetoowíhna 
kpeetoowíhmwa 
peetoowíiwak

VTI3 miichuw

numiichÍiwi
kumiichíiwi 
miichíiwi
numiichiiwíhna 
kumiichiiwíhna 
kumiichiiwíhmwa 
miichiiwíiwak

Examples

Mah ngataatamóowi  maalaxkwsíital.
I dont want any beans.

Mah kii kataatamóowi wuskii-apíinay.
Néeka mah kataatamóowi wtéehim.
Mah ngataatamoowíhna wteehíimal.
Mah kataatamoowíhna áhpapoon.
Mah kataatamoowíhmwa wuskii-apíinay.
Máhta kataatamoowíiwak wiiskíimal.

Unstable stems and negative absolute forms

(This applies to VAIOs and class 3 VTIs such as miichuw)

Verbs listed as ending in (uw) revert to their true stem vowel (ii) before all negative endings.

Verbs with unstable vaio stems ending in (aa) are listed as ending in (eew) and like the corresponding VAIs, they use (ee) for 3rd person negatives in absolute forms, otherwise they inflect using (aa)

VTI and VAIO Unstable Stems Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

Stem ending vowel type 3rd sg 3rd pl Negative 3rd sg Negative 3rd pl
(stem-aa) (stem-eew) (stem-eewak) mah (stem-eewi) mah (stem-eewiiwak)
(stem-ii) (stem-uw) (stem-uwak) mah (stem-iiwi) mah (stem-iiwiiwak)
(stem-pwii) (stem-puw) (stem-puwak) mah (stem-pwiiwi) mah (stem-pwiiwiiwak)

(míichuw) is a Class3 VTI with an unstable stem ending in (ii)

Míichuw wtéehiim. 
He ate a strawberry.

Numíichi wteehíimal. 
I ate some strawberries.

Mah miichíiwi wtéehiim. 
He did not eat a strawberry.

Mah numiichíiwi wteehíimal. 
I did not eat any strawberries.

VAIO verbs which end in (uw) congugate like míichuw.

Example: uw vaio he says it (he says something)

stem = (ii) irregular beginning pattern should be noted

Objective forms: 
nziin  I said it.
ksiin 
wsiin   
nsiineen 
ksiineen 
ksiineewa 
wsiineewa

Absolute forms, with noun supplied as a pronoun kweekw:

nzi kweekw   I said something. 
ksi kweekw
uw  kweekw 
nzihna kweekw
ksihna kweekw
ksimwa kweekw
uwak 

Negative Objective

mah nziiwun   I said it not
mah ksiiwun  
mah wsiiwun
etc   

Negative Absolute
mah nziiwi kweekw I did not say something
mah ksiiwi kweekw
mah iiwi kweekw
etc 

uw may also conjugate as a vai: he says  stem = (ii) 
VAI Indicative Mode

nzi  I said
ksi 
uw 
nzihna 
ksihna 
ksihmwa 
uwak

VAI Indicative Mode Negatives
mah nziiwi I didn't say
mah ksiiwi 
mah iiwi
etc      

Example of a VAIO with an unstable stem ending in (aa)

wihkwihleew vaio he runs out of s.t.

Mah wihkwihléewi wúyoos.   
He did not run out of meat.  

Mah nuwihkwihláawi wúyoos.   
I did not run out of meat.  

 

Go to VTI Indicative Mode Practicum 6 Absolute Negatives

VTI Indefinite subject forms

The expected X subject form (using the verb kataatam ‘he wants s.t.’ as an example) translated to ‘it is wanted’ is not included in the paradigms we have discussed. A ‘derived’ verb is instead used to say ‘it is wanted’ The verb is called derived because it is formed from the VTI and then it conjugates as a VII.

                                
How to form a derived passive verb:  

Remove the vti class marker (am) or (um) or (oo)  
Add (aasuw) to the stem  
Conjugate using VII paradigms 

Example with katáatam

(kataat)

(kataat) + (aasuw)

Kataatáasuw. 
It is wanted. 

Kataataasuwal. 
They are wanted. 

Eenda-kataatáasiik. 
When it is wanted. 

Keetaatáasiik.  
The wanted one.

Katáatam wuskii-apíinay.  
He wants a new bed.  

Kwatáatamun wuskii-apíinay. 
He wants the new bed.  

Wuskii-apíinay kataatáasuw.  
The new bed was wanted.

áhtoow vti2 put s.t. down

ahtáasuw  be put down, it is put down

lóosum vti1b burn s.t.

loosáasuw vii be burnt

shóoham vti1a paint s.t.; rub s.t. on, rub s.t.

shooháasuw vii be painted

Go to VTI Indicative Mode Practicum VII

VTI Examples per stem type:

VTI 1a Verb root + (am)

pundam  hear s.t.
Mbundam puyool.
I heard a violin.

Kpundamun puyool.
I heard it,the violin.

Mah mbundamoowi puyool.
Mah kpandamoowun puyool.

VTI1b Verb root + (um)

naatum  get s.t., go after s.t.
Naatumóhna kweekwiil. 
We got some stuff.

Naatumuneen wiiskiimal. 
We got them, the grapes.

Mah kunaatumoowu mah kweekw, 
You didn’t get anything.

Mah naatumoowuneen wiiskiimal. 
We didn’t get the grapes.

VTI2 Verb root + (oo)

peetoo-w  bring s.t.
Mbeetoonal  mahksunal.
I brought them,  the shoes.

Mbeeto mahksunal.
I brought some shoes. 

VTI3 all other verb roots

miichii-w =   miichuw  = he eat s.t.
Nii numiichiin mayaat wteehiim.
I ate one strawberry.

Nii numiichi wteehiimal.
I ate some strawberies

 

Go to VTI Practicum 7 Derived Passives

 

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