VTI Conjunct Basics and Changed Conjunct Mode

VTIs conjugate into the conjunct mode exactly like VAIs and VOTIs.

Consonant ending VTIs include the large number of class 1a and class 1b verbs by virtue of the class markers (-am) and (-um) and class 3 VTIs ending in (m) or (nd). VAIOs with stems which end in consonants conjugate conjunct mode forms exactly like consonant ending VAIs.

VTI Conjunct – Consonant stems

Basic paradigm Meaning
(consonant stem)-aan I —
(consonant stem)-an You —
(consonant stem)-uk He or She —
(consonant stem)-eengw We — (exclusive)
(consonant stem)-eengw We — (inclusive)
(consonant stem)-eekw Ye —
(consonant stem)-óhtiit They —
Not attested There is —

Example: kataatam vti1a he wants s.t.


Special cases – Consonant Stems

(1) VTI stems ending in (m) or (n) add (k) directly then nasalize the cluster (nk) or (mk) to (ng)

(2) Some speakers insert (aw) before the conjunct endings that start with a vowel:

(aan) (an) (eengw) and (eekw)

Forms (stem-m) (stem-n) (consonant stem)*
1st sg (stem-m)-aan (stem-n)-aan (consonant stem)-aw-aan
2nd sg (stem-m)-an (stem-n)-an (consonant stem)-aw-an
3rd sg (stem)-ng (stem)-ng (consonant stem)-uk
1st pl (stem-m)-eengw (stem-n)-eengw (consonant stem)-aw-eengw
2nd pl (stem-m)-eekw (stem-n)-eekw (consonant stem)-aw-eekw
3rd pl (stem-m)-óhtiit (stem-n)-óhtiit (consonant stem)-óhtiit

Forms relevant to the discussion above are in bold type.

*optional insertion of (aw)


Piind vti3 he puts s.t. on (clothing)


Meek vaio give s.t. away


X Subject Forms

No indefinite subject forms for consonant ending stems are used. The form (stem)-ung would be expected theoretically however these would resemble the (stem)-eengw form.
(Reference Ives Goddard Delaware Verbal Morphology)

A ‘derived passive’ form conjugated into conjunct mode could be used however. ‘Derived’ refers to the process of using part of one word to construct a new word. This process was described earlier and will be briefly reviewed below:

Derived passive verbs may be constructed by adding (-aasii) on the main part on the vti stem:

He wants it
Main stem found by removing class marker (am)
(kataat) + (aasii) + (w) = derived passive vii 

It is wanted.  
(indicative mode vii) 

When it is wanted. 
(conjunct mode)  

The dictionary lists derived passive verbs built from a variety of stems.


Go to VTI Practicum 9 Conjunct 1


Vowel Ending Stems

Vowel ending VTI stems includes only one class3 VTI which ends in (ii) :

He eats something.  

There are many VTI class2 stems which end in (oo). The (oo) marker changes to (aw) in all conjunct forms except before the 3rd personal plural ending (-htiit), and before the conjunct negative suffixes.

The indicative mode, subordinative mode and the imperative mode all use the (oo) marker as do verbs constructed using diminutive suffixes (to be described later).

VAIOs with vowel endings behave, for conjugation purposes, like VAIs. The paradigm for all these vowel endings will be reproduced below, and it is identical to the chart from the VAI Conjunct chapter.

Vowel ending stems insert (y) before the non 3rd person conjunct endings which all start with a vowel.

miichii + aan => (miichii)-y-aan => míichuyaan  

The (y) induces modifications to the stem vowel as follows:  
    (ii) + (y) => uy    (aa) + (y) => ay    (ee) + y => ay  

Conjugation Paradigm for Vowel Ending Stems

VTI / VAIO Conjunct – Vowel stems (ee)

Basic paradigm Meaning
(stem)-ay-aan I —
(stem)-ay-an You —
(stem)-ee-t He or She —
(stem)-ay-eengw We — (exclusive)
(stem)-ay-eengw We — (inclusive)
(stem)-ay-eekw Ye —
(stem)-ee-htiit They —
(stem)-ee-ng There is —


VTI / VAIO Conjunct – Vowel stems (aa)

Basic paradigm Meaning
(stem)-ay-aan I —
(stem)-ay-an You —
(stem)-aa-t He or She —
(stem)-ay-eengw We — (exclusive)
(stem)-ay-eengw We — (inclusive)
(stem)-ay-eekw Ye —
(stem)-aa-htiit They —
(stem)-aa-ng There is —


VTI / VAIO Conjunct – Vowel stems (ii)

Basic paradigm Meaning
(stem)-uy-aan I —
(stem)-uy-an You —
(stem)-ii-t He or She —
(stem)-uy-eengw We — (exclusive)
(stem)-uy-eengw We — (inclusive)
(stem)-uy-eekw Ye —
(stem)-ii-htiit They —
(stem)-ii-ng There is —

Examples to illustrate each stem type:

(1) muneew vaio he drinks something ; (ee) stable


uw: vaio he says it ; (ii) unstable

éenda-úyaan *
* or éenda-íiyaan etc

wihkwihleew vaio run out of s.t. ; (aa) unstable


Conjugation paradigm for the Class 2 VTIs
These stems end in (oo) conjugate exactly like the VOTI2s (see VAI Conjunct)
The (oo) shifts to (aw) before all conjunct endings, except for the conjunct negative forms and the 3rd person plural form (-htiit) and the diminutive suffix (shii-) which retain the (-oo-)

VTI2 Conjunct stem ending in (oo)

Basic paradigm Meaning
(stem)-aw-aan I —
(stem)-aw-an You —
(stem)-aakw He or She —
(stem)-aw-eengw We — (exclusive)
(stem)-aw-eengw We — (inclusive)
(stem)-aw-eekw Ye —
(stem)-oo-htiit They —
(stem)-aw-ung There is —


péetoow vti2 he brings it

X éenda-péetawung

** Note that (aw)(k) => (aakw) due to a phonology rule


Go to VTI Practicum 10 Conjunct 2

Negative VTI Conjunct

Negatives form just like the VAI conjunct negatives:

Consonant ending stems insert (oo) before the negative suffix (w)   
Regular conjunct an-endings are added to the (w).  
(w) + (k)  =>  (kw) in the 3rd sg conjunct  
The 3rd person plural also has the shift to (kw) word finally.  


VTI Negative Conjunct Mode

Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm Meaning
mah (vowel stem)-waan mah (consonant stem)-oowaan I — not
mah (vowel stem)-wan mah (consonant stem)-oowan You — not
mah (vowel stem)-kw mah (consonant stem)-ookw He or She — not
mah (vowel stem)-weengw mah (consonant stem)-ooweengw We — not (exclusive)
mah (vowel stem)-weengw mah (consonant stem)-ooweengw We — not (inclusive)
mah (vowel stem)-weekw mah (consonant stem)-ooweekw Ye — not
mah (vowel stem)-htiikw mah wu-(consonant stem)-óhtiikw They — not
mah —-(vowel stem)-wung** mah —-(consonant stem)-oowung** There is not —

** reference ref. Ives Goddard; Linguistic Variation in a Small Speech Community: The Personal Dialects of Moraviantown Delaware; Anthropological Linguistics;Volume 52, Number 1, Spring 2010;pp. 1-48

VOTI2 stems ending in (oo) do not shift to (aw) before negative endings

It is not uncommon for speakers to use non-negative conjunct forms after mah and mahta.
This usage should not be considered incorrect.

Consonant ending examples for the negative forms:

because I didn't do it  

...mah éeli-lúnumookw  
because he didn't do it  

...mah éeli-lunumóoweengw  
because we didn't do it  

...mah éeli-lunumóhtiikw  
because they didn't do it  

Vowel ending examples, negative VTI conjunct:

... mah éeli-miichíiwaan  
because I did not eat  
(unstable-ii stems  revert to (ii) before negative endings)  

... mah éeli-weewiitóowaan  
because I do not know  
(stems in (oo) do not shift to (aw) before negative endings )  

... mah éeli-munéewaan  
because I drink not  

Go to VTI Practicum 11 Conjunct 3

Changed VTI Conjunct Mode

The Changed Conjunct Mode is used when the action of the secondary clause co-occurs simultaneously with the action of the main clause.

This mode almost always uses preverbs and corresponding verb roots that express temporal simultaneous concepts, such as ‘while’, ‘because,’ or ‘whenever.’

This mode is characterized by a shift in the initial vowels for (a) and (e) called the ‘’Initial Change’‘. This change affects the preverb vowel if present.

Initial Change:

a => ee

u => ee

ah => eh

Changed vti conjunct, like other verb types, uses a variety of preverbs. Verb stems sometimes build these preverbs into their structure, and a conjunct sub-clause will then follow.

While she looked at it.  
(neeli- pv  while + conjunct)  

Héesh nah ayúmaan.  
Everytime I get something.  
(héesh pc  every)   
(also written as eesh pc every)  
(initial change = included in heesh)  

Everytime we  look at it.  
(eendxun PV everytime + conj)  

Because ye knew it  
eel- or eeli pv  because + conj  in a certain manner or direction  

Néeka mateelúndam éeli-chanustamóhtiit.  
He was unhappy because they misunderstood it.  
chanústam misunderstand s.t., mishear s.t.  

When he got it.  
eenda-  PV  when,where + conj  

You burned it somewhat.  
eelkih- pv certain amount, extent + conjunct  

Ta éelkih-lóosung? 
How much of it did he burn?  

Alúmsuw iiyéeskwa kiish-lúnumaan.                                                
He left before I finished doing it.  
iiyéeskwa pc  before + conj  
kiish- pv completed action  

Ta lukíhkwi nu kataatamóhtiit?  
How much (strongly) do they want that?  
lukíhkwi pc extent, volume, amount  

Léhlapiit lúnum. 
He can do what he wants.  
[lehlapiit vai = conj only verb; as one likes]  

Go to VTI Practicum 12 Conjunct 4

(Paradigms: Reference Ives Goddard Delaware Verbal Morphology)

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