VTIs conjugate into the conjunct mode exactly like VAIs and VOTIs.
Consonant ending VTIs include the large number of class 1a and class 1b verbs by virtue of the class markers (-am) and (-um) and class 3 VTIs ending in (m) or (nd). VAIOs with stems which end in consonants conjugate conjunct mode forms exactly like consonant ending VAIs.
VTI Conjunct – Consonant stems
|(consonant stem)-aan||I —|
|(consonant stem)-an||You —|
|(consonant stem)-uk||He or She —|
|(consonant stem)-eengw||We — (exclusive)|
|(consonant stem)-eengw||We — (inclusive)|
|(consonant stem)-eekw||Ye —|
|(consonant stem)-óhtiit||They —|
|Not attested||There is —|
Example: kataatam vti1a he wants s.t.
éenda-katáatamaan éenda-katáataman éenda-katáatang éenda-katáatameengw éenda-katáatameekw éenda-kataatamóhtiit
Special cases – Consonant Stems
(1) VTI stems ending in (m) or (n) add (k) directly then nasalize the cluster (nk) or (mk) to (ng)
(2) Some speakers insert (aw) before the conjunct endings that start with a vowel:
(aan) (an) (eengw) and (eekw)
|1st sg||(stem-m)-aan||(stem-n)-aan||(consonant stem)-aw-aan|
|2nd sg||(stem-m)-an||(stem-n)-an||(consonant stem)-aw-an|
|3rd sg||(stem)-ng||(stem)-ng||(consonant stem)-uk|
|1st pl||(stem-m)-eengw||(stem-n)-eengw||(consonant stem)-aw-eengw|
|2nd pl||(stem-m)-eekw||(stem-n)-eekw||(consonant stem)-aw-eekw|
|3rd pl||(stem-m)-óhtiit||(stem-n)-óhtiit||(consonant stem)-óhtiit|
Forms relevant to the discussion above are in bold type.
*optional insertion of (aw)
Piind vti3 he puts s.t. on (clothing)
éenda-píindawaan éenda-píindawan éenda-píinduk éenda-píindaweengw éenda-píindaweekw éenda-piindóhtiit
Meek vaio give s.t. away
éenda-méekawaan éenda-méekawan éenda-méekuk éenda-méekaweengw éenda-méekaweekw éenda-meekóhtiit
X Subject Forms
No indefinite subject forms for consonant ending stems are used. The form (stem)-ung would be expected theoretically however these would resemble the (stem)-eengw form.
(Reference Ives Goddard Delaware Verbal Morphology)
A ‘derived passive’ form conjugated into conjunct mode could be used however. ‘Derived’ refers to the process of using part of one word to construct a new word. This process was described earlier and will be briefly reviewed below:
Derived passive verbs may be constructed by adding (-aasii) on the main part on the vti stem:
Katáatam. He wants it Main stem found by removing class marker (am) (kataat) + (aasii) + (w) = derived passive vii Kataatáasuw. It is wanted. (indicative mode vii) Éenda-kataatáasiik. When it is wanted. (conjunct mode)
The dictionary lists derived passive verbs built from a variety of stems.
Vowel Ending Stems
Vowel ending VTI stems includes only one class3 VTI which ends in (ii) :
Míichuw. He eats something.
There are many VTI class2 stems which end in (oo). The (oo) marker changes to (aw) in all conjunct forms except before the 3rd personal plural ending (-htiit), and before the conjunct negative suffixes.
The indicative mode, subordinative mode and the imperative mode all use the (oo) marker as do verbs constructed using diminutive suffixes (to be described later).
VAIOs with vowel endings behave, for conjugation purposes, like VAIs. The paradigm for all these vowel endings will be reproduced below, and it is identical to the chart from the VAI Conjunct chapter.
Vowel ending stems insert (y) before the non 3rd person conjunct endings which all start with a vowel.
miichii + aan => (miichii)-y-aan => míichuyaan The (y) induces modifications to the stem vowel as follows: (ii) + (y) => uy (aa) + (y) => ay (ee) + y => ay
Conjugation Paradigm for Vowel Ending Stems
VTI / VAIO Conjunct – Vowel stems (ee)
|(stem)-ee-t||He or She —|
|(stem)-ay-eengw||We — (exclusive)|
|(stem)-ay-eengw||We — (inclusive)|
|(stem)-ee-ng||There is —|
VTI / VAIO Conjunct – Vowel stems (aa)
|(stem)-aa-t||He or She —|
|(stem)-ay-eengw||We — (exclusive)|
|(stem)-ay-eengw||We — (inclusive)|
|(stem)-aa-ng||There is —|
VTI / VAIO Conjunct – Vowel stems (ii)
|(stem)-ii-t||He or She —|
|(stem)-uy-eengw||We — (exclusive)|
|(stem)-uy-eengw||We — (inclusive)|
|(stem)-ii-ng||There is —|
Examples to illustrate each stem type:
(1) muneew vaio he drinks something ; (ee) stable
éenda-munáyaan éenda-munáyan éenda-munéet éenda-munáyeengw éenda-munáyeekw éenda-munéhtiit éenda-munéeng
uw: vaio he says it ; (ii) unstable
éenda-úyaan * éenda-úyán éenda-iit éenda-úyeengw éenda-úyeekw éenda-íhtiit * or éenda-íiyaan etc
wihkwihleew vaio run out of s.t. ; (aa) unstable
éenda-wihkwíhlayaan éenda-wihkwíhlayan éenda-wihkwíhlaat éenda-wihkwíhlayeengw éenda-wihkwíhlayeekw éenda-wihkwihláhtiit
Conjugation paradigm for the Class 2 VTIs
These stems end in (oo) conjugate exactly like the VOTI2s (see VAI Conjunct)
The (oo) shifts to (aw) before all conjunct endings, except for the conjunct negative forms and the 3rd person plural form (-htiit) and the diminutive suffix (shii-) which retain the (-oo-)
VTI2 Conjunct stem ending in (oo)
|(stem)-aakw||He or She —|
|(stem)-aw-eengw||We — (exclusive)|
|(stem)-aw-eengw||We — (inclusive)|
|(stem)-aw-ung||There is —|
péetoow vti2 he brings it
éenda-péetawaan éenda-péetawan éenda-péetaakw** éenda-péetaweengw éenda-péetaweekw éenda-peetóhtiit X éenda-péetawung ** Note that (aw)(k) => (aakw) due to a phonology rule
Negative VTI Conjunct
Negatives form just like the VAI conjunct negatives:
Consonant ending stems insert (oo) before the negative suffix (w) Regular conjunct an-endings are added to the (w). (w) + (k) => (kw) in the 3rd sg conjunct The 3rd person plural also has the shift to (kw) word finally.
VTI Negative Conjunct Mode
|Vowel stem paradigm||Consonant stem paradigm||Meaning|
|mah (vowel stem)-waan||mah (consonant stem)-oowaan||I — not|
|mah (vowel stem)-wan||mah (consonant stem)-oowan||You — not|
|mah (vowel stem)-kw||mah (consonant stem)-ookw||He or She — not|
|mah (vowel stem)-weengw||mah (consonant stem)-ooweengw||We — not (exclusive)|
|mah (vowel stem)-weengw||mah (consonant stem)-ooweengw||We — not (inclusive)|
|mah (vowel stem)-weekw||mah (consonant stem)-ooweekw||Ye — not|
|mah (vowel stem)-htiikw||mah wu-(consonant stem)-óhtiikw||They — not|
|mah —-(vowel stem)-wung**||mah —-(consonant stem)-oowung**||There is not —|
VOTI2 stems ending in (oo) do not shift to (aw) before negative endings
It is not uncommon for speakers to use non-negative conjunct forms after mah and mahta.
This usage should not be considered incorrect.
Consonant ending examples for the negative forms:
...éeli-mah-lunumóowaan because I didn't do it ...mah éeli-lúnumookw because he didn't do it ...mah éeli-lunumóoweengw because we didn't do it ...mah éeli-lunumóhtiikw because they didn't do it
Vowel ending examples, negative VTI conjunct:
... mah éeli-miichíiwaan because I did not eat (unstable-ii stems revert to (ii) before negative endings) ... mah éeli-weewiitóowaan because I do not know (stems in (oo) do not shift to (aw) before negative endings ) ... mah éeli-munéewaan because I drink not
Changed VTI Conjunct Mode
The Changed Conjunct Mode is used when the action of the secondary clause co-occurs simultaneously with the action of the main clause.
This mode almost always uses preverbs and corresponding verb roots that express temporal simultaneous concepts, such as ‘while’, ‘because,’ or ‘whenever.’
This mode is characterized by a shift in the inital vowels for (a) and (e) called the ‘’Initial Change’‘. This change affects the preverb vowel if present.
a => ee u => ee ah => eh
Changed vti conjunct, like other verb types, uses a variety of preverbs. Verb stems sometimes build these preverbs into their structure, and a conjunct sub-clause will then follow.
Néeli-punáng. While she looked at it. (neeli- pv while + conjunct) Héesh nah ayúmaan. Everytime I get something. (héesh pc every) (also written as eesh pc every) (initial change = included in heesh) Éendxun-pŭnámeengw. Everytime we look at it. (eendxun PV everytime + conj) Éeli-weewíitaweekw. Because ye knew it eel- or eeli pv because + conj in a certain manner or direction Néeka mateelúndam éeli-chanustamóhtiit. He was unhappy because they misunderstood it. chanústam misunderstand s.t., mishear s.t. Éenda-ayúng. When he got it. eenda- PV when,where + conj
Éelkih-lóosuman. You burned it somewhat. eelkih- pv certain amount, extent + conjunct Ta éelkih-lóosung? How much of it did he burn? Alúmsuw iiyéeskwa kiish-lúnumaan. He left before I finished doing it. iiyéeskwa pc before + conj kiish- pv completed action Ta lukíhkwi nu kataatamóhtiit? How much (strongly) do they want that? lukíhkwi pc extent, volume, amount Léhlapiit lúnum. He can do what he wants. [lehlapiit vai = conj only verb; as one likes]
(Paradigms: Reference Ives Goddard Delaware Verbal Morphology)