VTA Direct Independent Indicative

 

Transitive animate verbs are verbs that talk about people doing stuff with people. They are complex because of all the different participants involved, having an animate subject that could be any of the eight persons (I, you, he, we, we, ye, they and X) and an animate object that could be any of the seven possibilities (me, you, him, us, us, ye, them)

VTA Stems

The VTA verb stem is easily deduced from the dictionary listing. These verbs are listed in the 3rd person singular ‘absolute’ form which has the form:

(vta stem)-(eew)

Simply drop the (eew) and you have the functional stem in most instances.

VTA Stem Types

Knowing the VTA stem types is useful because some stem types interact with conjugation endings which start with a (u) to form a contraction to either (aa) or (oo). The table below lists the stem types and the type of contraction for illustration and reference purposes. The contraction will be explained when it is encountered and will be easier to understand with examples.

VTA or Transitive Animate Verb Stems

Example Stem Ending Stem Contraction Meaning
kulukíiheew Consonant (kulukiih) None make s.o. laugh
páhtheew Hidden (w) (pahtahw) w+ukw=>ookw hit s.o. by accident
móxkaweew (aw) (moxkaw) aw+ukw=>aakw find s.o.
péeshuweew (uw) (peeshuw) uw+ukw=>ookw bring s.o.
wtáxeew (x) (wutax) x+ukw=>xookw visit s.o.
néeweew (eew) (neew) None sees s.o.
muláaweew (aaw) (mulaaw) None smell s.o.invountarily

Stems with hidden (w) have a (w) on the stem that only appears in certain conjugated forms as a contraction, where the (w) interacts with (u) to form (oo) This will be discussed in the inverse mode chapter.

Overview of VTA modes of construction

(1) Direct Independent Indicative Mode

Used when a person or animate noun talks of a third person.
Objective and absolute forms exist.

Néewaaw lúnuw.  I see him the man  
Néeweew lúnuw.  I see a man  

Inverse Independent Indicative Mode
Reverses the order, i.e a third person talking of a person
(me, you, him, her, we, ye, they)

Nii néewukw.   
He sees me.  (me-he sees)  

“You-me and me-you Local Independent Indicative Modes”
Used when the verb involves non 3rd person subjects and objects.
The prefix (ku) with the direction marker (ul) expresses ‘’me-you’’

Kunéewul.  
I saw you.  

Kunéewi.  
You saw me.  

Inanimate subject Indicative mode
Níhlkwun.
It killed me.
Indefinite Subject (Passive) Independent Indicative Mode
I was seen.

(2) Independent Subordinative mode

Has forms for direct, inverse, passives, you-me and me-you constructions.

(3) Conjunct mode

Has forms for direct, inverse, passives, you-me and me-you constructions.

(4) Imperative mode.

Includes commands directed to a 3rd person object such as ‘Show him,’ and commands directed toward a first person object such as ‘Show me.’

The rest of this chapter will be devoted to objective and absolute construction for the VTA direct independent indicative mode.

Objective or Noun Optional Construction

Objective construction is used when one refers to a specific, definite object and may be used with or without a noun in the phrase. (Noun optional construction) The verb in this mode points to a very specific animate object translated as ‘he.’ This ‘he’ might be ‘he’ or ‘she’ or a non-person animate noun such as (pámbiil or book). If a noun is used, the verb is understood as referring to that noun object specifically and in definite way, thus the English translation will use the definite article ‘’the’‘.

Néewaaw.   
I saw him  

Néewaaw pámbiil.   
I saw him, the book.  

Neewáawak.   
I saw them.  

Absolute or Noun Required Construction

Absolute forms are used when one refers to non-specific, indefinite object. In this mode the verb cannot stand alone, in other words a noun or word representing the object must be added. This noun or word added does not refer to any one specific object however, it simply tells one what kind of object one is talking about, in generic terms. Thus the translation in English will use the indefinite articles ‘a’ (or ‘some’). The same verb form is used for a singular or a plural absolute object. This underscores how lacking this mode is in terms of definiteness.

Néewa awéen.   
I saw someone.  

Néewa pámbiil.   
I saw a book.  

Néewa pambíilak.   
I saw some books.  

Neewéewak lúnuwal.   
They saw a man.  

Conjugation Paradigm for the Direct Indicative Mode Objective Forms

Uses prefixes and endings known as the ‘’w endings’‘ (or affixes more properly said…) which are added to (aa) which is the ‘direct’ direction marker for VTAs.

 

VERB STEM + DIRECTION MARKER + ENDINGS  

 

The (aa) direction marker indicates ‘direct’ speech, in contrast to the (ukw) inverse speech direction marker, to be discussed later.

‘He’ or ‘him’ in the translations provided are used to mean an animate singular entity which could refer to a ‘she’ or ‘her’ or to an animate noun.

VTA Direct Indicative Mode Objective Forms (Sg Object)

Paradigm Meaning
nu-(stem)-aaw* I — him
ku-(stem)-aaw* You — him
wu-(stem)-aawal He — him (obviative)
nu-(stem)-aawuna We — him (exclusive)
ku-(stem)-aawuna We — him (inclusive)
ku-(stem)-aawa Ye — him
wu-(stem)-aawaawal** They — him (obviative)
—-(stem)-aaw He was —

*The full (aaw) ending may be used or may be shortened to (a) at the speaker’s discretion

**optionally some speakers may use the sg ending for plural subjects:
wu-(stem)-aawal

Example using the verb kataaleew vta want s.o.

    Ngatáalaaw             
    I want him        

    Katáalaaw              
    You want him     

    Kwataaláawal           
    S/he wants him  

    Ngataaláawuna          
    We want him    

    Kataaláawuna       
    We want him  

    Kataaláawa             
    Ye want him   

    Kwataalaawáawal        
    They want him   

    Katáalaaw          
    He is wanted  

Go to VTA Practicum I Direct Indicative Mode Objective Forms

Negative Forms

These are formed by adding the negative suffix to the direction marker (aa) followed by the w endings.

The final (w) of the 1st and 2nd person singular drops off after the negative suffix, final vowel shortening also applies.

Final (i) optionally may be pronounced or written as (u).

VTA Negative Direct Indicative Mode Objective Forms Sg Object

Paradigm Meaning
mah nu-(stem)-aawi I — him not
mah ku-(stem)-aawi You — him not
mah wu-(stem)-aawiiwal He — him not (obviative)
mah nu-(stem)-aawiiwuna We — him not (exclusive)
mah ku-(stem)-aawiiwuna We — him not (inclusive)
mah ku-(stem)-aawiiwa Ye — him not
mah wu-(stem)-aawiiwaawal They — him not (obviative)
mah —-(stem)-aawi He was not —

Example using the verb neeweew vta see s.o.

Mah neewáawu       
I saw him not  

Mah kuneewáawu     
You saw him not  

Mah wuneewaawíiwal     
S/he saw him not  

Mah neewaawíiwuna      
We saw him not  

Mah kneewaawíiwuna     
We saw him not  

Mah kuneewaawíiwa      
Ye saw him not                      

Mah wuneewaawíiwal     
They saw him not  

Mah neewáawu       
S/he was not seen  

Go to VTA Practicum II Direct Indicative Mode Objective Forms 2

Plural objects forms use the animate plural ending (ak). Obviative forms are the same whether sg or pl . Like animate possessed nouns, the forms for ‘we’ and ‘ye’ (1st and 2nd pl subject forms) are the same whether the object is singular or plural.

VTA Direct Indicative Mode Objective Forms (Pl Object)

Paradigm Meaning
nu-(stem)-aawak I — them
ku-(stem)-aawak You — them
wu-(stem)-aawal* He — them (obviative)
nu-(stem)-aawuna* We — them (exclusive)
ku-(stem)-aawuna* We — them (inclusive)
ku-(stem)-aawa* Ye — them
wu-(stem)-aawaawal* They — them (obviative)
—-(stem)-aawak They were —

* These forms are the same as the sg object forms

Example using the verb neeweew vta see s.o.

Neewáawak                  
I saw them  

Kuneewáawak                
You saw them  

Wuneewáawal                
S/he saw him, her or them  

Neewáawuna                 
We (excl.) saw saw him or them  

Kuneewáawuna               
We (incl.) saw him or them  

Kuneewàawa             
Ye saw him or them  

Wuneewaawáawal         
They saw him or them  

Neewáawak              
They were seen  

Go to VTA Practicum III Direct Indicative Mode Objective Forms Pl Object 3

Negatives for the objective forms with plural object follow the same pattern as the non-negative forms.

VTA Negative Direct Indicative Mode Objective Forms Plural Object

Paradigm Meaning
mah nu-(stem)-aawiiwak I — them not
mah ku-(stem)-aawiiwak You — them not
mah wu-(stem)-aawiiwal* He — them not (obviative)
mah nu-(stem)-aawiiwuna* We — them not (exclusive)
mah ku-(stem)-aawiiwuna* We — them not (inclusive)
mah ku-(stem)-aawiiwa* Ye — them not
mah wu-(stem)-aawiiwaawal* They — them not (obviative)
mah —-(stem)-aawiiwak They were not —

*identical to sg object forms

Example using the verb neeweew vta see s.o.

Mah neewaawíiwak       
I did not see them  

Mah kuneewaawíiwak         
You did not see them    

Mah wuneewaawíiwal     
S/he did not see him, her or them           

Mah neewaawíiwuna      
We did not see him, her or them  

Mah kuneewaawíiwuna        
We did not see him, her or them     

Mah kuneewaawíiwa      
Ye did not see him, her or them     

Mah wuneewaawiiwaawal   
They did not see him, her or them       

Mah neewaawíiwak       
They were not seen  

Go to VTA Practicum IV Negative Direct Indicative Mode Objective Forms Pl Object 4

Conjugation Paradigm for Absolute VTA Construction

These forms use the m ending set, added to the (aa) direction marker tells us that the mode is direct or non inverse. Like the VTI absolute forms, a noun is required and the verb form does not vary for object plurality. The animate plural ending (ak) references a 3rd person plural subject. There are no plural endings for plural objects because in this mode the object is vague and indefinite.

1st and 2nd sg forms may use the full m ending (-aam) or a truncated ending (-a).

Note the absence of the (wu) prefix in 3rd person sg and pl forms.

Footnote: VTIs and VTAs using m endings conjugate like VAIs almost as if the verb has no object. The noun adds the object but in a non specific form.

VTA Direct Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

Noun Required Construction

Paradigm Variant Meaning
nu-(stem)-aam nu-(stem)-a I — ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate noun(s)
ku-(stem)-aam ku-(stem)-a You — ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate noun(s)
—-(stem)-eew He or She — ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate obviative noun(s)
nu-(stem)-áhna We — ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate noun(s) (excl)
ku-(stem)-áhna We — ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate noun(s) (incl)
ku-(stem)-áhmwa Ye — ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate noun(s)
—-(stem)-eewak They — ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate obviative noun(s)

animate noun = 3rd person animate noun sg or pl; him, her, they, aween, aweeniik, etc

Example using the verb kataaleew vta want s.o.

Ngatáala(am) óhpun    
I want a potato  

Katáala(am) óhpun     
You want a potato  

Katáaleew óhpunal       
S/he wants a potato  

Ngataaláhna óhpun     
We want a potato  

Kataaláhna óhpun      
We want a potato  

Kataaláhmwa óhpun     
Ye want a potato  

Kataaléewak óhpunal     
They want a potato  

VTIs compared to VTAs

Ngatáatam apwáan.  
I want some bread.   
(Absolute inanimate transitive)  

Ngatáala óhpunak.  
I want some potatoes.  
(Absolute animate transitive)  

Ngatáatamun apwáan.  
I want the bread.  
(Objective inanimate transitive)  

Ngataaláawak óhpunak.  
I want the potatoes.  
(Objective animate transitive)  

Go to VTA Practicum 5 Direct Indicative Mode Absolute Forms 1

Negative absolute forms use (aa) then the negative suffix (w) followed by the m endings with the usual pattern of ending truncation.
Note the (aa) shift to (ee) in the 3rd person forms.

VTA Negative Direct Indicative Mode Absolute Forms

Noun Required Construction

Paradigm Meaning
mah nu-(stem)-aawi I — not ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate noun(s)
mah ku-(stem)-aawi You — not ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate noun(s)
mah —-(stem)-eewi He or She — not ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate obviative noun(s)
mah nu-(stem)-aawíhna We — not ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate noun(s) (excl)
mah ku-(stem)-aawíhna We — not ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate noun(s) (incl)
mah ku-(stem)-aawíhmwa Ye — not ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate noun(s)
mah —-(stem)-eewíiwak They — not ‘a’ or ‘some’ animate obviative noun(s)

animate noun = 3rd person animate noun sg or pl; him, her, they, aween, aweeniik, etc

Example using the verb kataaleew vta want s.o.

Mah ngataaláawi óhpun.        
I want a potato not  

Mah kataaláawi óhpun.     
You want a potato not  

Mah kataaléewi óhpunal.     
S/he wants a potato not  

Mah ngataalaawíhna óhpun.     
We want a potato not  

Mah kataalaawíhna óhpun.      
We want a potato not  

Mah kataalaawíhmwa óhpun.     
Ye want a potato not   

Mah kataaleewíiwak óhpunal.     
They want a potato not  

Mah kataaláawi óhpun.
A potato is not wanted. 

No plural object forms exist for these absolute negative constructs;however the required noun can be sg or pl .

(Verb Paradigms: Reference Ives Goddard Delaware Verbal Morphology)

Go to VTA Practicum 6 Negative Direct Indicative Mode Absolute Forms 2

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