Uses initial change and normal conjunct endings which indicate the subject and object
Participles may use any participant as its head or main focus.
Participles may be translated using the gloss: ‘that which’ or ‘he who’
Éelak. What I told him. Kéeta-lak. What I want to tell him. Éelaat. What he told him. Wíichŭmak. The one I helped. Éexamak. What I fed him. Kéeta-xámak. What I want to feed him. Waak na pámbiil péeshŭwaat wuliináakwsuw. And that book that he was bringing looked good. Eehwáalaat. The one he loves. [ahwaaleew to love s.o.] Eehawáalŭlan. You whom I love / my beloved / my dear. Eekuníimaat. The one who is talked about. akuniimeew talk about s.o. Numáhlawaaw meexáawatiit pámbiil. I bought the expensive book máhlaweew vta buy s.o. xwáawatuw vai be expensive (s.t. animate),
Participles are listed in the dictionary inflected for a 3rd person head (head word of the relative phrase)
Extra suffixes for obviation are not usually added.
(-t) or (u)(k) endings for 3rd person singular subjects
-(oo)(htii-t) for 3rd person plural subjects
Shŭwánakwak meenihláhtiit. Dead white men. (white men the ones who are dead)
Older forms persist with endings such as plural object or obviative
Neel kiikíipshal keetáalaat -vs- Neel kiikíipshal keetaaláachiil. The chickens the ones he wants Wiitaweemáachiil. His wife, her husband. (wiitaweem)-(aat)-(iil) spouse-3sg conj-obv Eekwŭyáaniil. My clothes. head is (ak-w-ii-) + (aan) + inanimate pl ending Eekwíichiil. His clothes.
Stems with relative roots (or a pv) may form participles that are based on the relative root or on any of the participants.
A relative root is a root which could be coupled with a qualifier or a quantifier such as a location (wiikuw), a means of doing something (liiaapawuw), an amount (laawatuw), a way of being (und), a what or a something (uw) etc
Wum vai come from a certain place, from somewhere noom koom wung cong 3sg Xwanshíikanung weeng. He who comes from the USA. Wiikuw vii dwell there wiikuyaan wiikuyan wiikiit Éeli-néewakiik. Because I saw them. Éenda-neewakíike. When I saw them.
Go to VTA Conjunct Practicum 7