VAI Indicative Mode Special Stems

I have singled out a few verbs for review here because their patterns of conjugation are either irregular or difficult.

(1) Ndúpuw vai he cooks

Difficulty: hidden vowel (ă) and shift in consonant from (d) to (t)

Nátpwi  
Kŭnátpwi  
Ndúpuw  
Nàtpwíhna  
Kŭnàtpwíhna  
Kŭnatpwíhmwa  
Ndúpŭwak  

Explanation:
(nu) + (ndupwii) = nátpwi
The prefix (nu) puts stress on the deleted vowel between (n) and (d)
This vowel turns out to be (a)
The cluster (nd) expands to (nat)

(2)  Uw vai he says

Difficulty: irregular beginning pattern and monosyllabic vowel unstable stem (ii)

Nzi, nziim   
Ksi, ksiim  
Uw  
Nzíhna  
Ksíhna  
Ksíhmwa  
Úwak  

Mah nzíiwu  
Mah ksíiwu  
Mah íiwu  
Mah nziiwíhna  
Mah ksiiwíhna  
Mah ksiiwíhmwa  
Mah iiwíiwak  

(3) Eew vai he goes

Difficulty: monosyllabic stem (ee)

Nda, ndaam  
Kta, ktaam  
Eew   
Ndáhna  
Ktáhna  
Ktáhmwa  
Éewak  

Mah ndáawu  
Mah ktáawu  
Mah éewu  
etc     

With preverb aalu- unable to

ndáalu-a  
ktáalu-a  
áalu-eew  
etc  

(4) Wum vai he comes from + location

Difficulty: irregular beginning pattern and monosyllabic stem, weak syllable deletion (wu-)

Noom  
Koom  
Wum  
Noomóhna  
Koomóhna  
Koomóhmwa  
Mook   

(wu) deletes in word initial position before syllable starting with (m)

Mah noomóowi.  
Mah koomóowi.  
Mah móowi.  
Mah noomoowíhna.  
Mah koomoowíhna.  
Mah koomoowíhmwa.  
Mah moowíiwak.  

With preverb kata

nágta-wum  
etc  

(5) Peew he comes

Difficulty: monosyllabic unstable stem (paa)

Mba, mbaam  
Kpa, kpaam  
Peew  
Mbáhna  
Kpáhna  
Kpáhmwa  
Péewak  

(6) pumúsuw vai he walks

Difficulty: stress assignment, deletion weak syllables

Mbúmsi, mbúmsiim  
Kpúmsi, kpúmsiim  
Pumúsuw  
Mbumsíhna  
Kpumsíhna  
Kpumsíhmwa  
Pumúsŭwak  

With preverb kata-

ngata-pumúsi or ngata-pumúsiim  
kata-pumúsi  
etc  

(7) Liitéeheew vai he thinks

Irregular: drops initial (l) before prefixes:

ndiitéeha  
ktiitéeha  
liitéeheew  
ndiiteeháhna  
ktiiteeháhna  
ktiiteeháhmwa  
liiteehéewak  

With preverb noochu- begin to do s.t.

Noochu-liiteeha  
Kunoochu-liiteeha  
etc  

(8) txíi-kătum vai be so many years old

This verb inserts (und) after prefixes.

Wiimbat ndund-txii-katum. 
I am ten years old.
Kéexu ktund-txíi-kătum?  
How old are you?  

Kéexu néeka txíi-kătum?  
How old is he?  
(3rd sg and pl VAI do not use (wu) prefix)  

 

Go to VAI Practicum 8 Special Verbs

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