VAI Indicative Mode Consonant Stems

Several groups of VAI verb stems end in consonants :

     -m  -k -kw -pw -p  -iin  -l  -d   -am -um   

These verbs are listed in the dictionary in the 3rd person singular indicative form which happens to be the actual verb stem in most cases.

Stems ending in (am) and (um) technically are type 1a and 1b VOTIs. These VOTI finals (-um) or (-am) are similar to the structure of VTIs, and the type 1a and 1b classification has relevance to the construction of certain forms. Details will be discussed as they come up in subsequent chapters.

Some consonant ending VAIs have atypical conjugation patterns, these will be discussed first.


(1) VAI stem ending in (-xiin)

These conjugate regularly as described in the consonant ending stem paradigm, however some speakers drop the final (n) in the 1st and 2nd person sg forms.

He lies down.

Nzhungíixiin or nzungiixi.
I lie down.

Alíike nii uch nzhungíixiin.
I guess I’ll lie down.

nu+sh=> nzh beginning pattern

alíike PC reluctantly

Kshungíixiin ha?
Did you lie down? (Are you lying down?)

Shaa nŭmáw-uch-shungíixi.
I’ll go lie down immediately.

Kway néeka kata-shungíixiin.
Now he wants to lie down.

Mah niilóona nzhungiixiinoowíhna íiyaach.
We are not lying down yet.

Kiilóona aa áapwi kshungiixiinóhna.
We should lie down early.

áapwi pc early

Kiilóowa kŭmáw-shungiixiinóhmwa eel-píiskeek.
Ye are going to lie down because its night.

Neekáawa wíhwiing-aníisku-shungiixíinook nayapáawŭnii.
They usually like to lie down during the morning..

wíhwiing- pv like to

aníisku- PV habitually

There is lying down.

VAI Stems Ending in (-xiin) “lie”

    may drop the final n in the 1st & 2nd p singular  
    nzhungíixiin vs nzhungíixi  


(2) VAIs with stem ending in (-k)

These verbs are irregular in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd person singular, in that a stem final (w) is present, making them appear to end in (-kw)
This (w) is most likely a remnant of a component of the m endings from older and archaic forms.

Lpákw. He cries.

Nii lúpakw  
Kii kŭlúpakw  
Néeka lpákw  
Niilóona lùpakóhna  
Kiilóona kŭlùpakóhna  
Kiilóowa kŭlùpakóhmwa  
Neekáawa lpákook  

Lpakw with preverb

Nii ndáapwi-lpákw.          
I cry easily.  

aapwi- pv early, easily  

Phrases using lpakw

Kii któhpu-lpákw.   
You cry alot.  

Neeka mah lpakóowi.  
He is not crying.  

Táhtaas niilóona lùpakóhna.    
Sometimes we cry.  

Táhtaas mah kŭlùpakoowíhna.  

Kiilóowa aa ktángii-lpakóhmwa.  
Ye should cry a little.   

Láawatu lpákook.  
Long ago they cried.  

VAIs in (k)

      Irregular ending in (kw) in the 1.2.3p sg indicative mode forms only  

The other difficult part of this verb has to do with the weak vowel (u) that seems to come and go mysteriously. one way to think of it is that when a prefix is present, even if omitted by phonology rules, it counts as a syllable and that puts the accent on the (u) the second syllable :

(nu)-lú-pakw => lúpakw  (nu) drops per phonology rules  
(ku)-lú-pakw => klúpakw  

Without a prefix, the (a) is the second syllable and it takes the accent:

lŭpákw => lpákw   

This concept is also discussed in the Pronunciation Chapter.


(3) VAIs ending in (m)

These conjugate regularly as described in the consonant ending stem paradigm.

The VOTI stems ending in (am) will be described separately.

He comes (from somewhere)   

Xwanzhíikanung kunjóoka noom.  
I recently came from the U.S.  
(nu + wu => noo)   
kunjóoka  PC recently      

Mah Mexico noomoowi.  
I didn't come from Mexico.  

Ta wa kii koom?      
Where did you come from?  

Aláami kii ha koom?  
Did you come from inside?  
aláami pc inside  

Piht eet wteeng wum.  
Maybe he came from the back.  

piht pc maybe  
eet pc maybe   
wtéeng  pc  behind, at the back, in back of   

Wteeng mah moowi, shayeemung wum.  
He didn't come from the back, he came from the front.  

shayeemung pc in front  

Kwáchumung noomóhna.   
We came from outside.  

kwáchumung  pc outside  

Tputáawii eenda-maawéhlaang koomóhna.  
We (inclusive) came from the community center.  

tputáawii eenda-maawéhlaang 
community center  

Wsháype koomóhmwa, mah síipoong koomoowíhmwa. Mah síipoong ktapiiwíhmwa.  
Ye came from the lake, ye didn't come from the river. Ye were not at the river.   

wsháype  pc  lake  
siipuw + ung => siipoong  

Wulamálusuwíikanung mook.   
They came from the health center.  

(wumook => wmook=> mook  
weak (u) drops and wm=> m)  

wulamálusuwíikan  health center  

Ootéeneeng neekáawa mah moowíiwak.  
They did not come from town.  

(4) VAIs in -(l)

These conjugate regularly as described in the consonant ending stem paradigm.

pumáashŭwihl swim (mbumáash’wihl)

Síipoong mbumáashŭwihl.  
I swam in the river.  

Wsháype mbiing kpumáashŭwihl.  
You swam in the water at the lake.  

wsháype  pc  lake  

Péexoot káta-maw-pumáashŭwihl.  
Soon he will want to go swim.  

Mah niilóona mbumaashŭwihloowíhna.  
We were not swimming. (we-exclusive)  

Ta wa kiilóona kmaw-pumaashŭwihlóhna?  
Where are we going swimming? (we-inclusive)  

Tputáawii eenda-maawéhlaang kiilóowa aa kŭmáw-pumaashŭwihlóhmwa.  
Ye should go swimming at the community center.  

Aníisku-pumaashŭwíhlook nayapáawŭnii.  
They usually swim in the morning.  

aniisku- PV habitually  
nayapáawŭnii  pc  in the morning  

There is swimming.   

(5) VAIs in (d)

These conjugate regularly as described in the consonant ending stem paradigm.

únd be a certain way (ndund ktund etc)

Nii mah nŭmáchii-undóowi.   
I am not being bad.   

Kii ktáapwi-únd.  
You are easy to be around. (You are being easy.)  

He is usually nice.  

aniisku- PV habitually  
pshihku- pv nice, good  

Mah ndáhwi-undoowíhna.  
We are not hard to be around.   

ahwi- ahwu- PV intense, hard, difficult     

Táhtaas kŭpshíhkii-undóhna.  
Sometimes we are nice. (we inclusive)  

Móxa ktáhwi-undóhmwa.  
Ye are very hard to be around.  

Neekáawa mah móxa pshíhkii-undoowíiwak.  
They are not being very nice.  

Neekáawa máchii-úndook.  
They are being bad.   

(6) verbs in -am and -um

These conjugate regularly as described in the consonant ending stem paradigm.

wuleelúndam voti1a he is happy (has a good feeling)

amáashŭnum voti1b he makes a face

psum voti1b have s.t. in one’s eye

Nii uch nooleelúndam wulahkaméeke.  
I will be happy if its a nice day.  

Mah nii uch nooleelundamóowi sookuláange.  
I won't be happy if it rains.  

Kii ha kooleelúndam wuláakwe?  
Were you happy yesterday?  

Néeka aníisku-wuleelúndam.  
She is usually happy.  

Niilóona ndáalu-wuleelundamóhna eel-wíineek.  
We can't be happy because its snowing.  

Mehch kiilóona kooleelundamóhna éeli-wuláhkameek.  
Now we (incl) are happy because its nice out.  

Kiilóowa shaa kŭmáw-wuleelundamóhmwa.  
Ye right away are going to be happy.  

Neekáawa tángii-wuleelúndamook.  
They are a little bit happy.  

There is happiness.  

Go to VAI Practicum 7 Consonant stem

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