VAI Conjunct Participles

Lunáapeew also has a mode called the Participle Mode. In this mode the verb modifies nouns or act as a noun.

This mode uses initial change and normal conjunct endings.

Participles may be translated using terms like : ‘that which’ or ‘he who’

Participles may use any participant as its head or main focus.

Examples:

Méexksiit.  
He who is red, the red one.  
(máxksuw  he, s.t. animate is red)  

Méexksŭyeekw.  
Ye who are red.   

Éeyaat.  
Where he went.  

eew he goes (somewhere = implied)      
eeyaat: verb stem is (aa) => (ee)-(y)-(aa)-(t)   
(initial change)-(y insert)-(stem)-(conj ending)  

Éeyaan.  
Where I went.  

Péeyaat.   
The one who came.  

peew he comes    its verb stem is (paa)  
irregular participle (initial change as ee + y)  

Éeyiit.   
What he said.   

uw he says (something = implied)   stem is (ii)   
eeyiit: (ee)-(y)-(ii)-(t)  
(initial change)-(y insert)-(stem)-(conj ending)  

The above three examples illustrate some particularities of monosyllabic verb stems, re: atypical initial change in the form of (eey)

Eelunuweelúnziit.   
Arrogant man.  

lunŭweelúnzuw vai-ii be an arrogant man  

Eelŭnuwíixtaat.   
Homely looking one  

lunŭwíixteew vai-aa look homely  

Wéelsiit.   
The pretty one.  

wulúsuw vai-ii  be pretty, nice, good  

Wéelihk.   
The pretty thing.  

wŭlút vii be pretty, nice, good  

Kéewiit.   
The sleeping one.  

Sleeping beauty  
Wéelsiit kawíiw  

VAI participles are listed in the dictionary inflected for a 3rd person head (head word of the relative phrase)

Extra suffixes for obviation are not usually added, but may be added.

(-t) or (uk) endings for 3rd p sg subjects

-(oo)(htiit) for 3rd p pl subjects

Lúnuw meetáawsiit.   
Evil man.  

Lúnuwak meetaawsíhtiit.  
Evil men.   

mataawsuw vai he is evil  

Meexksiit.   
The red one.  

Meexksíhtiit.   
The red ones, those which are red.  

Periph endings such -(iik) plural animate -(iil) plural inanimate or -(iil) obviative are however used in ‘fossilized’ participles and function like nouns

    
Meenéechiik.  
Drunks.  

(munee)-(t)-(iik)     
(stem)- (3rd sg conj)-(animate pl)  
(munéew he drinks)  

A verb may be derived from this participle:   

meenéetuw he is (a) drunk    
(Reference Ives Goddard Delaware Verbal Morphology)  

Preverbs and participles

Stems with relative roots (or a preverb) may form participles that may use as a focus any of the participants or the relative root may be the focus

A relative root is a root which could be coupled with a qualifier or a quantifier such as:

a location (wíikuw),
a means of doing something (liikáapawuw),
an amount (láawatuw),
a way of being (und),
a what or a something (uw)
etc


Laawatúyaan. 
What I cost.

Laawatúyan. 
What you cost.

Éendaan. 
How I am.

Éendan. 
How you are.

Éeyaan. 
What I said.

Éeyan. 
What you said.

Liikaapawúyaan. 
How I stand.

Liikaapawúyeekw. 
How ye stand.

liikáapawuw vai he stands in a certain way,direction.

Éeli-aaptóonayaan. 
How I speak. (li with initial change)

Éenda-pumúsuyan. 
Where you walk.

Séhku-ahlóhkayaan. 
How much I worked.

Séhku-ahlóhkuyeengw. 
How long we worked.

sáhku- pv a certain length (of time, measurement)

Xwanzhíikanung weeng.
He who comes from the USA.
The American.

wum vai come from a certain place, from somewhere
wung cong 3sg

Wíikuw vai dwell there

 Wíikuyaan.  
 Where I dwell. My home.  

 Wíikuyan.   
 Where you dwell. Your home  

 Wíikiit  
 His home.   

 Wíikuyeengw.  
 Our home.  

 Wíikuyeekw.  
 Your (pl) home.  

 Wiikíhtiit.  
 Their home.  

 

Go to VAI Practicum 19 Participles

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