Pronouns are parts of speech that replace a noun or complement a noun.
Demonstrative pronouns and personal pronouns have already been discussed.
This chapter will focus on words for who, what, how, someone, something, and another.
Who and What Pronouns
These pronouns are very versatile words in the Munsiiw language and are used in a variety of ways.
Awéen a person, someone, a who, to whom, whose used to refer to animate nouns or persons Awéen ha wa? Who is this? (Who is this person?) Awéen ha na oxkwéew? Who is that woman? Awéen eet ha na lúnuw. I wonder who that man is. Awéen ha wa? Whose is this? (to which person does this belong)
A query about the ownership of something inanimate may also use this type of phrase, since (awéen) refers back to the person not the thing.
Awéen ha yoon? Whose is this? (to which person does this belong) Awéen ha niil ashíikanal? Whose socks are those?
Replies to such ownership questions do not ‘require’ the possessive form of a noun:
Wan ha Bobúsh-pambíil. Yoon ha John-shookulápwaan.
A possessive noun ‘may’ be used however as a response:
Wan ha mbambíilum.
Awéen has a plural form: Awéeniik
(some people, persons, who, whose)
Awéeniik lúnuwak. Some men. Awéeniik ha yook? Who are they?
Awéen may be used as verb subject.
In that role it functions just like a personal pronoun (nii, kii, néeka etc) but is indefinite : one could say awéen is the animate indefinite pronoun.
Awéen wuneewáawal. Someone saw him. Awéeniik wuneewáawal. Some people saw him.
Awéen may be used as verb object.
When used as the object of the verb it can be singular:
Néewa awéen. I saw someone, a person, s.t. animate.
… or plural
Néewa awéeniik. I saw some people.
… or it can be obviative:
(obviative form sing/pl = aweeniil )
Néeweew awéeniil. He saw someone or some people. Awéeniil ha wiichéeweew? He is going with someone? wiicheeweew to go with s.o. (Reference John O'Meara Munsee Delaware Dictionary)
Awéen is in obviative form because it represents an obviative person.
‘he’ is the verb subject and ‘aweeniil’ is the verb object.
The obviative ending makes it clear that ‘he’ is going with ‘someone’
Compare this to :
Awéeniik ha wiicheewaawáawal.
Some people are going with him.
(‘him’ is the secondary or obviative participant in this phrase)
2 more examples:
Awéen neewáawal. Someone saw him. Néeweew awéeniil. He saw someone.
Other uses of aween:
Wiicheewáawal awéeniil lúnuwal. She will go with any man. Think of it as: awéen-lúnuwal = a man person Wéemu awéen. Everyone. wéemu pc all Wéemu awéeniik. All the people. Mah ha awéen. Nobody. Áalund awéen. Some people.
Other forms of aween:
chíipaween pr odd,bad, káanzhaween pr important person maanjŭwáween pr strange person máashaween pr strange person séekaween pr active,restless person máchu-awéen pr bad person mataakanáween pr bad person (impolite)
(Reference John O’Meara Munsee Delaware Dictionary)
Kweekw a thing, something, a what
[the inanimate equivalent of aween]
[may also be used as kweek without the final (w)]
Kweekw ha nu? What is that? Kweekw ha yu? What is this?
The plural of kweekw = kweekwill
Kwéekwiil ha niil? What are those?
As verb subject:
Kweekw áhteew. Something is there. Kwéekwiil ahtéewal. Some things are there. (al) is the plural ending for VIIs
Kweekw as verb object:
Neem kweekw. I see something.
A few examples of other uses:
Wéemu kweekw. Everything. Xwéeli kweek. Alot of things. Mah kweek. Nothing.
Ktákan the other one, another one (of something animate or inanimate)
May be used with animate nouns:
Ktákan lúnuw wuneewáawal. The other man saw him. Ktákan áhpapoon íiyaach áhteew. The other chair is still there. Néewa ktákan oxkwéesus. I see another girl.
May be used with inanimate nouns:
Neem ktákan máhkahkw. I saw another pumpkin.
May be used with plural nouns:
Ktákaniil ahpapóonal maxkéewal. (Ktákaniil is the inanimate plural form) Néewa ktákaniik pambíilak. (ktákaniik is the animate plural form)
Use with noun in obviative:
Néeweew ktákaniil. He saw some other one. (ktákaniil is the obviative form) Wiicheewáawal ktákaniil lúnuwal. She went with the other man. Wiicheewáawal ktákaniik lúnuwal. Others went with the men.
(4) How, when, where
There is no one word or simple way to translate the ideas of ‘how’, in what manner, in what quantity, where, and when.
‘’How’‘ is not technically a pronoun in English, it is an “interrogative adverb” but I have included it here since the pronouns (awéen) and (kweekw) may be used in such manner.
Ta and tha
Ta and tha are particles used in a variety of ways.
Animate verbless ‘where’ questions use (wa) or (yook)
Tha wa Njan? Where is John? Tha wa na pámbiil? Where is that book? Teet ha yook nuwándŭmak. I wonder where my mittens are. Tha wa mwáakaneew? Where is the dog?
Inanimate verbless ‘where’ questions use (yu)
Tha yu? Where is it Ta yu wíisakiim? Where is the grape? Tha yool kumahksúnal? Where are your shoes?
Tha is used with a verb for ‘where’ questions.
Tha ha kta? Tha kta? Tha ktaam? Where are you going? (All three variations are identical in meaning) Ta wúndakw wíikiin? Where does he live? (Reference John O'Meara Munsee Delaware Dictionary) Ta ha kii koonjiiyayii? Where are you from? Wéemu taa. Everywhere. Máhta taa. Nowhere. Akwáawu taa. Anywhere. (akwáawu pc either, any) Taa talú. Some place.
Tha may be used to mean ‘how’
Tha láhkameew? How is the weather? Tha ktulamálsi? How are you feeling? Tha ktulamalsíhmwa? How are ye feeling? Tha laapamúkwsuw? What color is (he) it? (How is he colored) Tha laapamúkwat? What color is it? (How is it colored) Ta ha kii? How are you?
Tha may also be used to mean ‘when’
Tha lúkih? Taa lúkih? Ta lúkih? When? At what time? All three variants express the same idea of time length, extent Some time ago; some time in the future (later on); i.e. 'when' Eesh ta lúkih. Every once in while. Heesh taa lúkih. Every once in a while.
Tha may be used in other questions and contexts:
Taa sáhku? How long? (don't know length) Ta lukíhkwi póondakat eehundáxpwiing? How much does the table weigh? (don't know weight) Taa neek. Perhaps, How should I know, I don't know. (idiomatic expression)
The above examples can be thought of as meaning :
'question, query, don't know'
‘How much’ and ‘how many’
Kéexu láawatuw? How much does it cost? animate or inanimate Kéexu ha? How many? Kéexu kulákuw? What time is it? (How many o'clocks?)
‘Why’ questions use ‘wunj’
Wunj means ‘for a certain reason’ … (literally ‘where one is coming from’)
Variants of [wunj] include [wunjii] and [wunju]
Wunj can stand alone as a word particle :
Kweekw wunj kiikiipush aaneeng aashuwooxweew? Kweek ha wunj láapii kpaam?
Wunj may be used as a preverb:
Kweekw ha koonj-mataangóomi? Why are you mad at me?
Wunj is also used in its prenoun form with a locative noun, and means ‘from.’
Náatumun uch apwáan wunju-pehpoxkwahtíikanung. I'll get the bread out of cupboard. Náatumun uch mulúk wunju-mehmohkamíiheetung. I'll get the milk out of the fridge.
‘To’ + locative noun is expressed using ‘eenda’
Wulahtóonal pakíinjuwal éenda kshiixíinjuweeng. He put some dishes in dishwasher.
Go to the Pronouns Practicum