Mahican VAI Indicative Mode Stable Stems

 

(1) Stable VAI stems ending in (ii):

These stems are called stable because they do not shift the stem ending vowel before the 3rd person endings in indicative mode.

The dictionary lists these with an (iiw) ending, and all other forms indicated in the dictionary entry also use (ii) prior to the endings, which makes these verb easily identifiable. They are labeled as vai because there is no way to confuse these verbs with unstable verbs.

VAI Stable Stem Independent Indicative Mode (ii)

Meaning Build Final form
I — nu(····ii)m nu·····ih
You — ku(····ii)m ku·····ih
He or She — —-(····ii)w ····iiw
We — (exclusive) nu(····ii)hnąą nu····ihnah
We all — (exclusive) nu(····ii)hnookw nu····ihnookw
We — (inclusive) ku(····ii)hnąą ku(····)ihnah
We all — (inclusive) ku(····ii)hnookw ku(····)ihnookw
You (pl) — ku(····ii)hmąą ku····ihmah
They — —-(····ii)wak ····iiwak
There is — —(····ii)n ····iin

Note: Final reshaping of the endings is included in the final paradigm, including shortening of the final vowel ii in word final position which then takes a final -h

Example: kawiiw vai-s he sleeps


ngáwih I sleep.  
káwih              
kawíiw               
ngawíhnah      
ngawihnookw           
kawíhnah                
kawihnookw
kawíhmah             
kawíiwak             
kawíin             

VAI Negative Stable Stem (ii) Independent Indicative Mode

Meaning Build Final form
I — not ustah nu(····ii)wii ustah nu····iiw
You — not ustah ku-(····ii)wii ustah ku····iiw
He or She — not ustah —-(····ii)wii ustah ····iiwih
We — not (exclusive) ustah nu(····ii)wíhnąą ustah nu····iiwíhnah
We all — not (exclusive) ustah nu(····ii)wíhnookw ustah nu····iiwíhnookw
We — not (inclusive) ustah ku(····ii)wíhnąą ustah ku····iiwíhnah
We all — not (inclusive) ustah ku(····ii)wíhnookw ustah ku····iiwíhnookw
You (pl) — not ustah ku(····ii)wíhmąą ustah ku····iiwíhmah
They — not ustah —-(····ii)wíiwak ustah ····iiwíik
There is not — ustah —-(····ii)wun ustah ····iiwun

(This paradigm is identical to the unstable stem ending in (ii) negative form paradigm)

Examples

ustah ngawíiw    I sleep not   
ustah kawiiw
ustah kawíiwih
ustah  ngawiiwíhnah  
ustah ngawiiwihnookw
ustah kawiiwíhnah  
ustah kawiiwihnookw
ustah  kawiiwíhmah 
ustah kawiiwíik  
ustah kawíiwun  

Examples:

Nuyah ngawih wunąąkwah.   
I slept yesterday.  

Kuyah kóonu-káwih?   
How did you sleep?  (did you sleep well?)  

Nāākmah ąąpchiiwih kawíiw.   
He is always sleeping.  

Ngatāāw-kawíhnah.   
We want to sleep.  

Maxih kawíhmah.   
You (pl) sleep alot.  

Nāākmāāwah mawih-kawíiwak.   
They are going to sleep.  

mawih pv go to do something  

Kawiin.   
There is sleeping  

Negative examples:

Ustah ngawíiw.  
I'm not sleeping.  

Ustah kŭmáwih-kawíiw.  
I'm not going to sleep.  

Ustah nāākmah katāāw-kawiiwih.  
He doesn't want to sleep.  

Nuyāānah ustah ngawiiwíhnah.  
We won't sleep.  

Nākmāāwah ustah kawiiwíik.  
They are not sleeping.  

Ustah kawíiwun.  
There is no sleeping.  

(2) VAI stems ending in (āā)

The dictionary lists many VAIs ending in (āāw). These include the stable VAIs with stems ending in (āā) and the unstable VAIs with stems ending in (ąą),

The unstable stems which end in (ąą) shift this vowel to (āā) in the 3rd person forms of the independent indicative whereas the stable stems ending in (āā) use this vowel in all forms.

VAI Stable Stem Independent Indicative Mode (āā)

Meaning Build Final form
I — nu(····āā)m nu····ah
You — ku(····āā)m ku····ah
He or She — —-(····āā)w ····āāw
We — (exclusive) nu(····āā)hnąą nu····ahnah
We all — (exclusive) nu(····āā)hnookw nu····ahnookw
We — (inclusive) ku(····āā)hnąą ku····ahnah
We all — (inclusive) ku(····āā)hnookw ku····ahnookw
You (pl) — ku(····āā)hmąą ku····ahmah
They — —-(····āā)wak ····āāk
There is — —-(····āā)n ····āān

Example: anahkāāw vai he works

ndanahkah   I work  
ktanahkah      
anahkāāw                 
ndanahkahnah              
ndanahkahnookw
ktanahkahnah      
ktanahkahnookw        
ktanahkahmah             
anahkāāk           
X anahkāān  There is working  

VAI Negative Stable Stem (āā) Independent Indicative Mode

Meaning Build Final form
I — not ustah nu(····āā)wii ustah nu····āāw
You — not ustah ku(····āā)wii ustah ku(····āā)w
He or She — not ustah —-(····āā)wii ustah ····āāwih
We — not (exclusive) ustah nu(····āā)wíhnąą ustah nu····āāwíhnah
We all — not (exclusive) ustah nu(····āā)wíhnookw ustah nu····āāwíhnookw
We — not (inclusive) ustah ku(····āā)wíhnąą ustah ku····āāwíhnah
We all — not (inclusive) ustah ku(····āā)wíhnookw ustah ku····āāwíhnookw
You (pl) — not ustah ku(····āā)wíhmąą ustah ku····āāwíhmah
They — not ustah —-(····āā)wíiwak ustah ····āāwíik
There is not — ustah —-(····āā)wun ustah ····āāwun

Negatives

ustah ndanahkāāw  I work not   
ustah ktanahkāāw
ustah anahkāāwih  
ustah ndanahkāāwíhnah  
ustah ndanahkāāwíhnookw
ustah ktanahkāāwíhnah
ustah ndanahkāāwíhnookw
ustah ktanahkāāwíhmah  
ustah anahkāāwiik  
ustah anahkāāwun  

(VOTI = Objectless Transitive Inanimate Verbs) which end in āā conjugate as stable vai stems ending in āā

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