Mahican VTI Imperatives

Commands are formed like the VAIs and VOTis.

Commands or requests may be formulated and verbs conjugated for this purpose are said to be in the imperative mode.

Commands have an implied animate subject: you – you (plural) -we (you and I) – we (all of us).

Different endings indicate which subject is being used for the command.

No personal prefixes are needed or used in this mode.

Mahican has endings to contruct delayed imperatives which are commands that pertain to a future time.

The VTI class markers -am and -um remain attached to the main stem in the imperative, but are phonologically reworked in some forms.
VAIOs conjugate like VAIs, and it is to be noted that verbs with unstable stems do not shift vowels in the imperative.

CLass 1a VTIs : (stem-am) + (h) = (stem-ah)

Class 1b VTIs : (stem-um) + (h) = (ih)

Other consonant ending stems add (ih

VTI / VAIO Imperative

Stem Type 2nd sg (you) 2nd pl (you pl) 1+2 pl (Let’s) 1+2+3 pl (Let’s all)
(VTI1a)-am (stem)-ah (stem)-am-ookw (stem)-am-ootąąw (stem)-am-ootook
(VTI1b)-um (stem)-ih (stem)-um-ookw (stem)-um-ootąąw (stem)-um-ootook
(VTI2)-āā (stem)-ah (stem)-āākw (stem)-āātąąw (stem)-āātook
(vowel stem) (stem)-h (stem)-kw (stem)-tąąw (stem)-took
(consonant stem) (stem)-ih (stem)-ookw (stem)-ootąąw (stem)-ootook

VTI Delayed Imperative Mode

The delayed imperative mode is used for commands that should be carried out at a later time.
2nd person sg and pl forms exist.

Subject VTI (vowel stem) VTI (consonant stem)
2nd sg (You) (—-)-mah (—-)-oomah
2nd pl (You pl) (—-)-māākw (—-)-oomāākw


VTI / VAIO Prohibitive Mode

The prohibitive mode is used for commands of the type, ‘thou shalt not’ or ‘Do not’ and represent the negative form of the imperative mode

Negative commands or prohibitive statements use modified endings which include the negative suffix (oo)(w)(ii)

One of the prohibitive particles: chih, chiin, chiinih precedes negative commands in this mode. Chiin is like saying “don’t.”

Unspoken Subject Paradigm
2nd sg (You) chiin (—)han
2nd pl (You pl) chiin (—)hāākw

As always, in vowel ending stems the final long vowel shortens before the h of -han or -hāākw


ahsąąnāāw vaio-s throw or cast s.t. or s.o. out (Matt7.5)

Ahsąąnah. Cast it aside.
Ahsąąnāākw. Cast it aside. (you pl)
Ahsąąnāāmah. Cast it aside later.
Ahsąąnāāmāākw. Cast it aside later. (you pl)
Ahsąąnāātąąw. Let's cast it aside, you and I. 
Ahsąąnāātook. Let's cast it aside. 
Chiin ahsąąnahan.  Don't cast it aside. 
Chiin ahsąąnahāākw,  Don't cast it aside. (you pl)

akiitam vti1a read s.t. (s38)

Akiitah. Read, count it. (s16)(s114) 
Akiitamookw.  Read, count it. (you pl)
Akiitamoomah. Read, count it later. (s16)(s114) 
Akiitamoomāākw.  Read, count it later. (you pl)
Akiitamootąąw.  Let's read it. (you and I)
Akiitamootook.  Let's read it. 
Chiin akiitamhan. Don't read it. 
Chiin akiitamhāākw. Don't read it. (you pl)

amanum vti1b take s.t. away

Amanih. Take it away. (s137)
Amanumookw.  Take it away. (you pl)
Amanumoomah. Take it away later. (s137)
Amanumoomāākw.  Take it away later. (you pl)
Amanumootąąw.  Let's take it away. (you and I)
Amanumootook.  Let's take it away. 
Chiin amanumhan. Don't take it away. 
Chiin amanumhāākw. Don't take it away. (you pl)

Imperative using the subordinative mode:

Use of the subordinative mode denotes a mild suggestion.
Although the interpretation is that of a command, these forms use a prefix and endings appropriate for the participant who is the object of the command.
Thus, these forms may be used for commands which specify another person who is involved. Negative forms are also prefixed and do not use a negative verb ending.

Let me eat it. 
Let us eat.  

Chiin kumiichiin. Don't eat it. 

Injunctive Commands using Conjunct Mode

Uses a 3rd person conjunct form without initial change and a modified ending, the injunctive suffix -ch to form third person commands.
Consonant stems add -(u)ch instead of the usual conjunct ending.

miichuw eat s.t.
Let him eat it. 
ahtāāw put s.t. there
Ahtāāch. Let him put it there. (injunctive command) (s90)
nąątunum take s.t. (s137)
Nąątunuch. Let him take it. 

Extended list of examples:

anahtāāw vti2 lose s.t. (s94)

Chih anahtāākw. Don’t (you pl) lose it. (s94)
Chih ktunahtāān. Don’t lose it.

ahtāāw vti2 put s.t. there (TM24) (P mlh30)

Ahtah ahkiik. Put it on the ground. (s124)
Ahtah paniiwih. Put it away, throw it away. (s124)=(s35)=(s113)

akunahum vti1b divide s.t., serve s.t. (s58)

Akunahih. Divide it. serve it out.

anąąhāāw vaio-s throw something. (TM3)

Chiin anąąhahāākw. Don’t throw (it) {somewhere} (you pl.)!(Goddard2008)(Matt7.6)

anāānŭtam vti1a let s.t. (Ps19.14)(Matt5.16)

Anāānŭtah niin ndąąptoonāāwąąkanan ndoon wāāch- ąąm -wawiikihnąąyan. 
Let the words of my mouth be pleasing to you. (Ps19.4)

Anāānŭtamookw niin kuwąąθnāāniikanuwąąn. 
Let (pl) your lights shine. (Matt5.16)

anawahtāāw vti2 gather s.t.

Pāāshkwunook anawahtāākw mahtąąxan nah. 
Gather the wood together (s152)

asunahtahum vti1b attach s.t. strongly (s77)

Asunahtahih ktahkwahiikanuwah.
Nail them on strongly, your (pl) nails. (s77)

chachapunum vti1b divide, distribute, share, serve s.t.

Chachapunih. Distribute it. (s58)

chiikham vti1a sweep s.t.

Chiikhah. Sweep it out. (s16 11)(s136)
Anna chiikhah wiikwahm. Anna sweep the house. (s136)
Chiikhamookw. Sweep it out.  2pl imp

kakiikwashāāw vaio-s blow one’s nose, snort (s42)

Kakiikwashah. Blow your nose. (s42)

katąątam vti1a be diligent about s.t., do s.t. promptly, with haste

Katąątamookw niitahkanak. Let's be diligent my brothers. (s86)

katuwāāw vaio-s deny, retract s.t.

Katuwāātąąw. Lets deny it.

kpaham vti1a close s.t., shut s.t. (s49)

Kpahah. Close it. (s23 71)(Sw212-j.)
Kpahah θkwąątāām. Close the door. (Sw212-j.)

ksiixtāāw vti2 wash, clean s.t. (IG ) (Prince) (kshiixtāāw) (P mlh30)

Ksiixtah ndahāāmut. Wash my shirt (s125)

ksiixŭnum vti1b clean, wipe s.t. (kshiixunum)

Ksiixnih kahkiiwan. Wipe, clean your nose (s103) 
Ksiixnih ahkwakwanah paxkiikan. Clean the gun of rust. (s117)

kununum vti1b carry, hold s.t. (P mlh29) (s137)(s47)

Kununih. Take it. (s137)

kunustam vti1a listen to s.t.

Kunustamookw. Listen (you pl) to it. (s79)

kwsihtāāw vti2 swallow, gulp, drink down s.t. (s135)

Kwsihtah. Swallow it.

kwtahtam vti1a taste s.t. (Ps 5.4)

Kwtąhtah=kah. So taste it. (s137)

kwunupunum vti1b turn s.t. around, turn s.t. over (s143)

Kwunupunih. Turn it around.

kxanawąątam vti1a pay attention, keep, retain, remember s.t. (letters, verses etc) (HA56)(HA63)

Kxanawąątah. Keep it, retain it, remember it. re: a word, verse or letter (s87) (mod add k-)

kxanawihtāāw vaio-s provide, care for s.t. or s.o. (s47)(TM11)

Kuyanāāw (ka)xanawihtāātąąw. (s47) Let’s take care.

mamatahāāw vaio-s sound, ring s.t. (s131)

Tawtaw mamtahah. Sound the bell. (s131)

mchiimham vti1a lock, close s.t. up (s49)

Mchiimhah kahnih. Lock it up securely. (s49) 

miis’ham vti1a sew s.t., patch s.t. (Sw13) (miish’ham)

Kumiis'hamun. Fix your shoes. (s107) subordinative command

mihkanum vti1b make room for something

Mihkanih. Make room. (s116)

msąątam vti1a think about s.t.; remember s.t. (s140) (mshąątam)(TM12)(HA56) (Prince)

Kumąąmshąątamun anih. You must think about it. (s140)

nąąpham vti1a string s.t., lace s.t. up. thread s.t.

Nąąphah. String it. (wampum) (s124)=(s15)

nąątum vti1b fetch, get s.t. (TM16) (s65)

Nąątih. Fetch it. (s19 42)
Mahtąąxan nih kunąątum. You must fetch the wood (s152) subordinative command

nąątunum vti1b take s.t. (s137)

Nąątunih. Take it! (s137) (IG)
Nąątunih nih tąąn wāātunuman. Take what you like. (s137)
Nąątunumookw wchuwahtaaw. Take (pl) it, it is full. 
Kunąątunumnāāwah. You (pl) take it . (P mlh32)

nāāwanam vti1a bend s.t.

Nāāwanah. Bend it. (Jefferson)

nanamahāāw vaio-s ring, sound s.t. (of a bell)

Nanamahah tawtaw kumayawihnah. Sound the bell, we are meeting. (s131) (mod to EMh -aw => -ah)

noxkwatam vti1a lick s.t. (s91)

Noxkwatah. Lick it. (s18 27)

pāātāāw vti2 fetch s.t. (Sw225-87e)

Pāātah. Fetch it.

pahwaham vti1a peel s.t., like peeling bark off a tree.

Pahwahah. Peel it. (bark) (s18 26)(s108)(s65)

pakatahnāāw vaio-ąą throw onself at s.o. or s.t. (s68)

Pakatahnah wsiituk. Throw yourself at his feet.

piitham vti1a fill s.t. up

Piithah. Fill it up. (s19 42)

pootam vti1a escape s.t. (HA 55) (Prince)

Kwchih-pootah. Try to save yourself. (Prince)

pohpakham vti1a knock on s.t. (s88); pound on s.t. (s111)

Pohpakhah anih tawunąąmukah. Knock it will be opened (s88)
Pohpakhamootąąw. Let’s (us two) pound. 

punam vti1a look at s.t. (s94)(HA48)

Punah noonoh nun. Look here it is. (Sw219-51av)
Punah! Look at it!

pumāāw vaio-ąą shoot s.t. or s.o. (TM16) (s126)

Pumąątąąw. Let’s shoot. (s25 84)
Pumąątook? Let’s all shoot. (s126)
Kāākwāā=ch pumąąkw? Shoot (pl) what? (s126)

sapaθum vti1b melt s.t. (s99) (shapasum)

Sapaθih potun. Melt the butter. 

tąąwiikwam vti1a open s.t. (s106)

Tąąwiikwamootook. Let’s all open it. 123-0 (–)am-ootook

tpuθtam vti1a obey s.t. (tpustam) (Watts17)

Tpuθtamookw. Obey (pl) it. (Watts17) (–)am-ookw imp 2p

wąąsunāānum vti1b make s.t. bright (s91)

Wąąsnāānih. Make it bright.

wanuθuw vaio forget s.t. or s.o. (s68) (wanusuw)

Chiin wanuθihāākw. Don’t you (pl) forget it.

wchuwupāāw vaio-s fill s.t. or s.o. up (s69)

Wchawupatąąw hooθ. Lets fill up the kettle. 1p-3 imp

wuniixtāāw vti2 prepare, fix, repair s.t. (TM12)(Ps119.4)

Wuniixtāākw. Fix it, prepare it. (imp. you pl) (mlh29)

wuyamaxkunum vti1b mix s.t. (s99)

Kuyah wuyamaxkunih. Mix it.

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