Mahican VTI Conjunct Basics

VTIs conjugate into the conjunct mode exactly like VAIs and VOTIs.

Consonant ending VTIs include a large number of class 1a and class 1b verbs by virtue of the class markers (-am) and (-um) VAIOs with stems which end in consonants conjugate conjunct mode forms exactly like consonant ending VAIs.

The class markers -am and -um add the 3rd person ending -k forming a nasal cluster (amk) and umk. By sound law the nasal component drops and the ending becomes -ak and -uk respectively.

The class markers interact with X subject ending -umuk such that -am-umuk coalesces to -ammuk or more simply: -amuk. The same process with the class marker -um yields -umuk.

VTI Conjunct – Consonant stems

Form (—)am (—)um (consonant stem)
1st sg (—)am-ah (—)um-ah (consonant stem)-ah
2nd sg (—)am-an (—)um-an (consonant stem)-an
3rd sg (—)ak (—)uk (consonant stem)uk
1st pl (—)am-akw (—)um-akw (consonant stem)-akw
2nd pl (—)am-āākw (—)um-āākw (consonant stem)-āākw
3rd pl (—)am-htiit (—)um-htiit (consonant stem)-htiit
x subj (—)amuk (—)umuk (consonant stem)-umuk

Example: ąąyąątam vti1a he wants s.t.


X Subject Forms

One may use the forms ending in -umuk in which case the final m of the class marker merges with the ending -umuk as explained earlier.
A ‘derived passive’ form conjugated into conjunct mode could be used however. ‘Derived’ refers to the process of using part of one word to construct a new word. This process was described earlier and will be briefly reviewed below:

Derived passive verbs may be constructed by adding (-ąąθii) on the main part on the vti stem:

He wants it
Removal of the class marker (am) gives up the stem. 
(ąąyąąt) + (ąąθii) + (w) = derived passive vii

It is wanted.  
(indicative mode vii) 

When it is wanted. 
(vii conjunct mode)  

When it is wanted. 
(vti conjunct mode)


Vowel Ending Stems

Vowel ending stems include verbs ending in (ii) such as the vaio:

He eats something.  

Also there are the numerous VTI class2 stems which end in (āā). The (āā) class marker formerly used the class marker (aw) in all conjunct forms except before the 3rd personal plural ending (-htiit), and before the conjunct negative suffixes. Older Mahican texts written by John Sergeant used the aw marker but by the time of Aupaumut these verbs were conjugated as if they were stable stems ending in āā

VAIOs with vowel endings behave, for conjugation purposes in conjunct order, like VAIs. The paradigm for all these vowel endings will be reproduced below, and it is identical to the chart from the VAI Conjunct chapter.

Vowel ending stems insert (y) before the non 3rd person conjunct endings which all start with a vowel.

miichii + ah => (miichii)-y-aan => míichuyah  

The (y) induces modifications to the stem vowel as follows:  
    (ii) + (y) => uy    (ąą) + (y) => ąąy    (āā) + y => ay  

All other conjunct endings are added directly to the verb stem

=> (---) - (t)  
=> (---) - (htiit)  
=> (---) - (muk) for the X subject


VTI/VAIO Conjunct – Vowel stems

The paradigm below illustrates a VTI/VAIO with a stem ending in (āā).

Basic paradigm Meaning
(stem)-ay-ah I —
(stem)-ay-an You —
(stem)-āā-t He or She —
(stem)-ay-akw We — (exclusive)
(stem)-ay-āāk We all —
(stem)-ay-āākw You (pl) —
(stem)-a-htiit They —
(stem)-āā-muk There is —


VTI/VAIO Conjunct – Vowel stems

The paradigm below illustrates a VTI/VAIO with a stem ending in (ąą).

Basic paradigm Meaning
(stem)-ąąy-ah I —
(stem)-ąąy-an You —
(stem)-ąą-t He or She —
(stem)-ąąy-akw We — (exclusive)
(stem)-ąąy-āāk We all —
(stem)-ąąy-āākw You (pl) —
(stem)-a-htiit They —
(stem)-ąą-muk There is —



VTI/VAIO Conjunct – Vowel stems

The paradigm below illustrates a VTI/VAIO with a stem ending in (ii).

Basic paradigm Meaning
(stem)-uy-ah I —
(stem)-uy-an You —
(stem)-ii-t He or She —
(stem)-uy-akw We — (exclusive)
(stem)-uy-āāk We all —
(stem)-uy-āākw You (pl) —
(stem)-ii-htiit They —
(stem)-ii-muk There is —

Examples to illustrate each stem type:

(1) munāāw vaio he drinks something ; (āā) stable


uw: vaio he says it ; (ii) unstable

āātan-úyah *
* or āātan-íiyah etc

pumāāw vaio-ąą shoot s.t. or s.o. ; (ąą) unstable



Negative VTI Conjunct

Negatives form just like the VAI conjunct negatives:

Consonant ending stems insert (oo) before the negative suffix (w)   
Regular conjunct an-endings are added to the (w).  
(w) + (k)  =>  (kw) in the 3rd sg negative conjunct  
The 3rd person plural also has the shift to (kw) word finally.  


VTI Negative Conjunct Mode

Vowel stem paradigm Consonant stem paradigm Meaning
ustah (vowel stem)-wah ustah (consonant stem)-oowah I — not
ustah (vowel stem)-wan ustah (consonant stem)-oowan You — not
ustah (vowel stem)-kw ustah (consonant stem)-ookw He or She — not
ustah (vowel stem)-wakw ustah (consonant stem)-oowakw We — not
ustah (vowel stem)-wāāk ustah (consonant stem)-oowāāk We all — not
ustah (vowel stem)-wāākw ustah (consonant stem)-oowāākw You (pl) — not
ustah (vowel stem)-htiikw ustah wu-(consonant stem)-óhtiikw They — not
ustah —-(vowel stem)-mookw ustah —-(consonant stem)-umookw There is not —

Consonant ending examples for the negative forms:

...because I didn't look for it. 

...ustah āānih-kwiinamookw  
...because he didn't look for it  

...ustah āānih-kwiinamoowakw  
...because we didn't look for it  

...ustah āānih-kwiinamohtiikw  
...because they didn't look for it    

Vowel ending examples, negative VTI conjunct:

... ustah āānih-miichíiwah  
...because I did not eat it
(unstable-ii stems  revert to (ii) before negative endings)  

... ustah āānih-wāāwiitāāwah  
...because I do not know  it

... ustah āānih-munāāwah  
...because I drink it not  

Changed VTI Conjunct Mode

The Changed Conjunct Mode is used when the action of the secondary clause co-occurs simultaneously with the action of the main clause.

This mode is characterized by a shift in the inital vowels for (ą) and (ā) called the ‘’Initial Change’‘. This change affects the preverb vowel if present.

Inital Change:

ā => āā

u => āā

ąh => āh
While she looked for it.  
(āānih- pv  while, because + conjunct)  

Because you (pl) knew it. 

Nāākmah ahwāānŭtam āānih-kwiinamohtiikw.  
He was angry because they were not looking for it.  

When he got it.  
āātan-  pv  when,where + conjunct

You burned it somewhat.  
āānkwih- pv certain amount, extent + conjunct  

Tąąn ąąm āānkwih-chihkuθuk? 
How much of it did he burn?  

Anúmθuw āānih-kwiinamakw.                                                
He left while we were looking for it.  

Tąąn anukwiikw nih ąąyąątamhtiit?  
How much (strongly) do they want that?  
anukwiikw pc extent, volume, amount  

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