This mode expands on the concept of the X subject forms, where the subject is a “indefinite subject”, non-specific as to gender and number. There is no word in English to represent such a subject. The subject is vague to the point that one cannot translate using someone, because the subject could just as well be some people or something or some things.
The English passive comes closest to translating this concept.
"Indefinite Subject" hurt me. Someone, something, some people or some objects hurt me. “I was hurt” (English passive form)
A logical step by step approach starting with the direct mode form of a verb will help one understand indefinite subject forms:
(1) Direct: I hurt him (2) Inverse: He hurt me (3) Passive: Indefinite subject hurt me (4) Translation: I was hurt
Some verbs like amachoonāāw ‘anger s.o.’ make more sense using this step by step approach:
Direct: I made him angry. Inverse: He made me angry. Passive: Indefinite subject made me angry. Translation: I was angered.
Another example: aniitahamāāw ‘think about s.o.’
Direct: You thought about him Inverse: He thought about you. Passive Indefinite subject thought about you. Translation: You were being thought about.
These forms use the direction marker (ukāā) followed by m endings.
Third person forms follow a different paradigm and use the X subject forms we already know from the study of the direct mode.
Negative forms, subordinative mode forms and conjunct forms of this mode may also be inflected.
VTA Indefinite Subject Inverse Indicative Mode (Passives)
|nu-(stem)-ukah||I was —-|
|ku-(stem)-ukah||you were —-|
|—-(stem)-ąąw||He / She was —-|
|nu-(stem)-ukahna||we were —- (excl)|
|nu-(stem)-ukahnookw||we all were —- (excl)|
|ku-(stem)-ukahna||we were —– (incl)|
|ku-(stem)-ukahnookw||we all were —– (incl)|
|ku-(stem)-ukahmwa||you (pl) were —–|
|—-(stem)-ąąk||They were —–|
Nāāwkah I was seen. Kŭnāāwkah. You were seen. Nāākmah nāāwąąw. He was seen. Ndunihookah. I was treated so. Nahnąąk. They were killed. Ahwąąnąąw. He is loved.
VTA Negative Indefinite Subject Inverse Indicative Mode (Passives)
|ustah nu-(stem)-ukāāw||I was not —-|
|ustah ku-(stem)-ukāāw||you were not —-|
|ustah —-(stem)-ąąwih||He / She was not —-|
|ustah nu-(stem)-ukāāwíhnah||we were not —- (excl)|
|ustah ku-(stem)-ukāāwíhnah||we were not —– (incl)|
|ustah ku-(stem)-ukāāwíhmah||you (pl) were not —–|
|ustah —-(stem)-ąąwiik||They were not —–|
anuwāānumāāw vta honor s.o.
Ustah ndanuwāānmukāāw. I'm not honored. Ustah nāāwkāāw. I was not seen. Ustah kunāāwkāāw. You were not seen. Ustah nāāwąąwih. He was not seen. Ustah nahnąąwiik. They were not killed. Ustah ahwąąnąąwih. He is not loved.
Special stems :
(stem-aw)-ukāā- = (stem)-ąąkāā-
(stem-uw)-ukāā- = (stem)-ookāā-
(stem-h)-ukāā- = (stem)-hookāā-
(stem-x)-ukāā- = (stem)-xookāā-
Noonθutąąkah. I was believed. aw+ukāā= ąąkāā Ustah koonθutąąkāāw. You were not believed. Anihąąw. He was treated so. Ngwaxookah. I was feared.
VTA Special Stems
|(stem-aw)-ukāā||(stem)ąąkāā||wunúθtawāāw||noonθutąąkah||I was believed|
|(stem-uw)-ukāā||(stem)ookāā||pāāsuwāāw||mbāāsookah||I was brought|
|(stem-x)-ukāā||(stem)xookāā||kxwāāw||ngwaxookah||I was feared|
|(stem-h)-ukāā||(stem)hookāā||anihāāw||ndunihookah||I was treated so|
anāāw vta say to s.o.
VTA Irregular Verb
|Direct objective||Inverse objective||Inanimate Subj||Inanimate Subj absolute||Indefinite Subj|
The (n) drops before ukw in forms with a prefix on the stem.
When a preverb takes the prefix, the (n) does not drop.
Ngátāāw-nukw. He intends to say to me.