VTAs can form commands involving a 3rd person or to the speaker (1st person)
help him! vs help me!
Imperative mode forms do not use prefixes. Negative commands are preceded by the particle chih or the variants chiinih or chiin. Delayed imperatives allow one to issue a command that should be executed at a later time.
Third person object forms are the same, whether singular (him) or plural (them).
awanāāw vta take s.o. away (s137) (P mlh32)
Awanah. Take him away. (Take them away) Awanookw. Take (pl) him away. (s137) (Take them away) Awanąątąąw. Let's take him (or them) away. (you and I) Awanąątook. Let's all take him (or them) away.
Awanih. Take me away. Awaniikw. Take me away. (you pl) Awaniināānah. Take us away.
Awanąąmah. Take him away later. Awanąąmāākw. Take him away later. (you pl) Awaniimah. Take me away later. Awaniimāākw. Take us away later. Awaniimāākw. Take me away later. (you pl)
Chih awanahan. Don't take him away. Chih awanahāākw. Don't take him away. (you pl) Chih awanąąwiitąąw. Let's not take him away. Chih awaniiwih. Don't take me away. Chih awaniiwiikw. Don't take me away.(you pl) Chih awaniiwunāānah. Don't take us away.
Paradigm for VTA 3rd Person Commands
|Participants||Imperative Paradigm||Prohibitive Paradigm||Delayed Imperative|
|(you) — him or them||(stem)-ah||chih (stem)-ahan||(stem)-ąąmah|
|(you pl) — him or them||(stem)-ookw||chih (stem)-ahāākw||(stem)-ąąmāākw|
|(we) — him or them||(stem)-ąątąąw||chih (stem)-ąąwiitąąw||(stem)-ąąmāākw|
|(we all) — him or them||(stem)-ąątook||chih (stem)-ąąwiitook|
Paradigm for VTA 1st Person Commands
|Participants||Imperative Paradigm||Prohibitive Paradigm||Delayed Imperative|
|(you) — me||(stem)-ih*||chih (stem)-iiwih**||(stem)-iimah|
|(you pl) — me||(stem)-iikw||chii (stem)-iiwiikw||(stem)-iimāākw|
|(we) — me||(stem)-iināānah||chii (stem)-iiwunāānah||(stem)-iimāākw|
* variant : (stem)-iin
**variants: chih (stem-iiwun)
You- us uses the ‘n ending’ suffix perhaps because the subordinative mode which also uses n-endings can provide polite commands.
Imperative using the subordinative mode:
Use of the subordinative mode denotes a mild suggestion.
Although the interpretation is that of a command, these forms use a prefix and endings appropriate for the participant who is the object of the command.
Thus, these forms may be used for commands which specify another person who is involved. Negative forms are also prefixed and do not use a negative verb ending.
Ndaniitahamąąn. Let me think of him. Ndaniitahamąąnāānah. Let us think of him. Chih kwaxąąn. Don’t be afraid. (s31) Chih kwaxąąnāāwah. Don’t be afraid. Chiinih kwaxiin. Don’t be afraid of me. (s31)
Injunctive Commands using Conjunct Mode
Uses a 3rd person conjunct form without initial change and a modified ending, the injunctive suffix -ch to form third person commands.
Anąąch. Let him be told. Poonunąąch. Let him be released. (P mlh35)
ahkwanāāw bury s.o.
Ahkwanah. Bury them. (Prince V)
akoonāāw hang up s.t. animate
Akoonah hooθ. Hang up the kettle. (s77)
akunahumawāāw serve s.o. (s124)
Chih ktakunahumawąąn. Don’t serve him. (s124) (subordinative)
anāānmāāw let s.o., allow s.o. to do something (P mlh37)(HA55)
Anāānmah pumawŭθiich! Let him live! (C Ps51.1) Nāānmih. Let me. (Sw26-j131)
anāāw say, tell s.o.
Anih. Say it to me (s118) (s25 90) Aniināānah nih anih. Tell just us, just tell us it is so. (s119) 2s-1p imp Aniikw. Say it to me (you pl). (s118) Aniimah. Tell me later. (delayed imp.) corrected from ktuniimah (prefix removed) Iikw A. Say A. (you pl)(s118)
anapamoxkanāāw let s.o. go (P mlh33)
Anapamoxkanookw. So let (pl) them go. (P mlh33)
aniimāāw judge s.o., measure s.o. up, check s.o. out (Matt7.2)
Niimah! Check him out! (TM9)
aniitahamāāw think about s.o.
Aniitahamąątook. Let us all think about him. (s140)
awatooxanāāw carry, bring s.t. animate (s47)
Awatooxanih. Bring it to me. (s47)
kąąnāāw put or hide s.o. away; keep s.o. back (Ps19.13)
Kąąnah. Keep him back.
kiikahāāw heal s.o. (s79)
Kiikahookw. Heal (you pl) him or them. Kiikahih. Heal me. (s19 42)
kootunupāāw fill s.t. animate (kettle) with water, liquid (s65)
Kootunupah. Fill it!
ktumąąkāānŭmāāw be kind, merciful, compassionate toward s.o. (s51)
Ktumąąkāānmih. Show pity to me. (Ps51.1)(Sw165-j131)
kununāāw hold s.o., carry s.o. (using the hands)
Kakāānŭnih. Hold me (s82)
kunuθtáwāāw listen to s.o. (s92) (s79)
Kunuθtawih. Listen to me (s79) Kunuθtawiikw. Listen (you pl) to me. (mlh31)
kwchiimoonāāw ask s.o. (TM7) (mlh29)(s34)
Kwchiimoonąh kiitahkanak. Ask your brothers. (s34) Kwchiimooniimah. Ask me later. (s34) (delayed imp) Kwchiimoonąąmah. Ask him later. (s34) (delayed imp) Nuyāānah kwchiimooniimąąkw. Ask us later. (delayed imp)
kwiinawāāw look, seek, search, hunt for s.o. Kwiinaw D. Look for D. (s123) Kwiinawookw D. Look (pl) for D. (s123)
kwxāāw be afraid of s.o.
Chih kwaxąąn. Don’t be afraid. (subord) (s31) Chiin kwxąhan. Don’t be afraid (s32) Chih kwaxąąnāāwah. Don’t be afraid. (subord) Chiinih kwaxiin. Don’t be afraid of me. (subord) (s31)
mąąwiikwamāāw sleep with s.o.
Mąąwiikwamatook. Let’s sleep together. (s20 48)
mamanāākhamawāāw write to s.o. , write for s.o.
Kumamănāākhamawiināānah. Write in us. (mlh13)
maxkiināāw color s.o. red (s49)
Chiin kumaxkiiniin. Don’t color me red. (subord)
miisihāāw chase out, chase away (s47)
Miisihąh kiikiipsak. Chase out the chickens (s47) Anih-miisihąh kooyak. Drive the cows out. (s47) Miishihąątook. Let’s chase (s.t.) away. (s147)
msąąnāāw think about s.o., remember s.o. (P mlh31) (mshąąnāāw) (Ps4.2)
Msąąniimah pąąyanih. Remember me when you come. (s115) (note delayed imp and -ih iterative suffix) Mąąmsąąnookw. Think (you pl) about him. (s140)
mxāānŭmāāw respect, honor s.o. (s83) (HA62) (Watts7) (John3.16)
Maxāānmih. Respect me. (Xāānmih) Mxāānmatąąw. Let's honor him. (s83) Mxāānmah koox wąąk kŭkuk. Honor your father and mother. (HA62)
nāāwāāw see s.o. (s120)
Nāāwookw. Look (pl) at him. (s121) Nāāwih. See me.
nahtamawāāw help s.o. (s80) (TM14) (TM6)(HA31)
Nahtamawatąąw. Let’s help. (s81) Nahtamawih. Help me.
nahnxawoonāāw prevent, hinder s.o. (s81) (HA74)
Chiin kunahnxawoonun. Don’t hinder me. (s82)
nanāāw fetch s.t.
Takwax nanah. Fetch bread. (s65)
nganāāw leave s.o. behind, abandon s.o. (TM18) (TM24)
Pāāskuw kustay ngαnαh. Leave one cheek behind. Hurry up. (idiom) (Sw30-49av)
nohpąąnāāw remove s.o. (s115)(s42)
Nohpąąnah hoos, wsąąmih kshiikamiisuw. Remove the kettle it is cooking too much (boiling over )(s115)(s42)
nxąąhāāw watch for s.o., watch out for s.o., be wary of s.o. (Matt7.15)
Nąąnxąąhookw. Beware (you pl.) of them. (Matt7.15)
pahkwąąsihāāw throw s.o. out, chase s.o. (s47)
Pahkwąąsihah nduyāāw. Chase the dog out. (s47)
pahkwāāychahāāw throw s.o. out, chase s.o. (s47)
Pahkwāāychahah pooshiis. Throw the cat out.
pakamāāw hit s.o. (s82)
Chih kpakamąąwun. Don’t hit him (s82)
paθuwamąąnāāw deny s.o. (HA47)
Chiin ąąm kpaθwamąąnąąnāānah. We should not deny him. (HA47)
poonunāāw leave s.o. alone, let go of s.o., release s.o. (P mlh35)
Poonunąh. Let go of him, leave him alone. (s90) Chiin poonunihan. Don’t leave me. (s90) Poonunąąch. Let him be released. (P mlh35)
punawāāw vta look at s.o.
irregular imperative punaw (s120) punawah (s99)
Punawih. (s120) Look at me. Chih punawiiwih. Don’t look at me. Punaw! Look at him! (s26 98) (s120) Punawiikw. (You pl) look at me Punawookw ktahawąąk. Look at them, your hearts (s120) 2p-3 (—)-ookw Punawookw. Look (you pl) at him or her.
putawāāw hear s.o.
Putawih. Hear me. (s16) Putawih nah. Hear me for this, grant me a hearing. (s79) Putawiināānah. Hear us, Grant us a hearing. (s79)
θąąθąąmchahāāw whip s.o. (s148)(P mlh35)
Θąąθąąmchahah. Punish him, give him the rod. (s149)
θooknąąnamāāw rain on s.o.
θooknąąnamiināānah. Let it rain on us. (mlh25)
θookuniitawāāw sprinkle s.o.
Chiin θookuniitawiin. Don’t sprinkle me. (s133)
θuθkoomāāw spit at s.o.
Chiin kθuθkoomąąn. Don’t spit at him. (s133)
skwusāāw cut, carve s.o. (s19 35)
Skwusah pāātkwayak. Dice the turnips.
takamāāw stab s.o. (s133)
Takamih=kah. Well stab me.
tawunāāw open s.o. (s106)
Tawunah ktah. Open your heart.
wāāwihāāw vta know s.o. (Watts5) (P mlh31) (s88) (Watts16)(HA54)
Wāāwihąątook. Lets get acquainted. (s88)
wunuθtawāāw be obedient to s.o.; obey s.o. (s103)
Koox wawunθutawąh. Be obedient to your father. (s103) Kooxwah wawunθutawookw. Be obedient to your father. (s103) Wunuθtawawiitąąw. Let’s not be obedient to him (s105)
wchiimāāw call, shout to s.o. (TM6) (s46)(HA94)
Wchiimąh Esther. Call Esther. (s46)
wchooθumāāw fill s.t. animate for smoking (pipe) (s65)
Wchooθumih. Give me a pipe of tobacco. (s65) Wchooθumah. Fill it. (s109)
wθutamawāāw forgive s.o. (mlh4)
Wθutamawih. Forgive me. (mlh4)
xamāāw feed s.o.
Chih xamąąhan. Don’t feed him. (s23 69)