Mahican VTA Conjunct

VTA verbs have conjunct forms corresponding to Direct, Inverse, You-Me, Me-You and Passive construction patterns.

Conjunct forms do not use prefixes. The endings indicate who is participating in the action.

The VTA conjunct has the same four modes as other verb types:

Changed Conjunct (CC)   
VTA specific conjunct endings, with inital change   
(a => āā  u=> āā)  

Changed Subjunctive Conjunct (CSC) mode   
adds (-ah) to the endings, with initial change.  

Subjunctive Conjunct Mode (CC)  
Adds  (-ah) to regular conjunct endings but without initial change 

Participles   
VTA specific conjunct endings, with inital change  

This chapter assumes one has become familiar with the various modes of the conjunct from the study of prior chapters. Examples of conjugated forms using all conjunct modes will be provided. There will be a separate chapter dedicated to the VTA participles however. The bulk of this chapter will be devoted to the manner of forming VTA conjunct forms.

VTA Direct Conjunct

The conjunct endings for VTAs in direct mode are called the at’ endings. The (ąą) direction marker is found in all but the the 2nd person forms, and in all the negative conjunct forms.

Basic paradigm Meaning
(stem)-ąąyah I — him
(stem)-at You — him
(stem)-ąąt He or She — him
(stem)-ąąyakw We — (exclusive) — him
(stem)-ąąyakw We — (inclusive) — him
(stem)-ąąyāāk We — (all) — him
(stem)-ąąyāākw You (pl) — him
(stem)-áhtiit They — him
(stem)-ąąmuk — him

When used as conjunct verbs (not participles) these forms are the same for a sg and pl object (him, her, them).

Nāāwāāw vta see s.o.

nāāwąąyah
nāāwat
nāāwąąt
nāāwąąyakw
nāāwąąyāāk
nāāwąąyāākw
nāāwáhtiit
x  nāāwąąmuk

Examples

Nhah Mbąąn āātan-nąąt.
I came when he was talking to him.
(changed conjunct)

Aātan-nāāwąąyah nāākmah wuθkiinúwuw.  
When I saw him he was a young man.  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)   

Wąąk mbah ngatāāw-nāāwąąyąąnah.  
I'll be back if I want to see him.  
(subjunctive conjunct)  

Note that the 3rd person non participle conjunct forms do not use obviative or plural endings. The vta 3rd person conjunct forms can use plural and obviative endings however this only occurs when a conjunct form is used as a participle in which case the participle adds proximate plural endings if required to fit the plural status of the head of the participle when it is proximate but the endings will be obviative if the head of the participle is obviative.

The man loves her (obv), the one (obv) he was looking for. 
Niimanāāw wtahwąąnąąn kwiinawąąchih. 

The man (prox), he (prox) who loves her, is looking for her (obv).
Niimanāāw ahwąąnąąt wkwinawąąn.

The man loves them (pl obv), the ones (pl obv) he was with. 
Niimanāāw wtahwąąnąąwąą wiichāāwąąchii.

The man (prox) is he who seeks them (prox), the loved ones (pl obv)
Niimanāāw kwiinawąąt ahwąąnąąchii. 

Who is he who Redeems them - the ones who are  elected by God?  (HA21Q)
Awāānii=k nah pahkwąąxkunąąt Pahtamawąąs nootnąąchii?  

VTA Negative Conjunct Mode – Direct

Paradigm Meaning
ustah (stem)-ąąwah I — him not
ustah (stem)-ąąwat You — him not
ustah (stem)-ąąkw He or She — him not
ustah (stem)-ąąwakw We — him not (exclusive)
ustah (stem)-ąąwakw We — him not (inclusive)
ustah (stem)-ąąwāākw You (pl) — him not
ustah (stem)-ąhtiikw They — him not
ustah (stem)ąąmookw — him not

Examples:

ustah nāāwąąwah   
ustah nāāwąąwat
ustah nāāwąąkw     
ustah nāāwąąwakw
ustah nāāwąąwāākw
ustah nāāwahtiikw
x  ustah nāāwąąmookw

(stem)-(ąą) + (w) + (conjunct ending)
Note the 3rd person negatives (-ąąkw) and (-ąhtiikw)
(wk) word final clusters shift to =>(kw)


Nhah mbąąn āātan- ustah -nąąkw.
I came when he was not talking to him.
(changed conjunct)

Aātan- ustah -kwiinawąąwah ustah nāākmah wuθkiinúwiiwih.  
When I did not seek him he was not a young man.  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)   

Wąąk=chih ustah mbąąw ngatāāw- ustah -nāāwąąwąąnah.  
I'll won't be be back if I do not want to see him.  
(subjunctive conjunct)  

VTA Conjunct Local Me-You Forms

The You-Me and Me-You conjunct forms use the (ii) theme sign followed by the ‘an’ endings, the same ones used for the VAI conjunct.
Forms using the direction marker (ii) form the conjunct as if they were VAIs ending in (ii) and those using the marker (un) conjugate as if a consonant ending VAI.

Participants Paradigm Negative Paradigm
I —— you (stem)-un-an ustah (stem)-un-oowan
I —— you pl (stem)-un-āākw ustah (stem)-un-oowāākw
We —-you (stem)-un-akw ustah (stem)-un-oowakw
We —- you pl (stem)-un-akw ustah (stem)-un-oowakw

Examples

Nāāwŭnan.              
I see you.

Nāāwŭnāākw.            
I see you (pl).

Nāāwŭnakw.           
We see you or you (pl).

Ustah nāāwŭnóowan.       
I see you not.

Ustah nāāwŭnóowāākw.     
I see you (pl) not.

Ustah nāāwŭnóowakw    
We see you or you (pl) not.


Nhah pąąn āātan-nāāwunan.  
He came when I saw you.  
(changed conjunct)  


Aātan-nāāwunāākwah kooθkiinuwihmah.  
When I saw you (pl), you (pl) were young men.  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)   

Wąąk nhah mbąąnāānah ngátāāw-nāāwŭnakwah.   
We'll be back if we want to see you.  
(subjunctive)  

VTA Conjunct Local You-Me Forms

The direction marker (ii) requires an intercalated (y) before the vowel initial conjunct endings (an) (akw) and (āākw). The vowels shift as usual:
(ii) + (y) + (an) => (uyan)

Participants Paradigm Negative Paradigm
You — me (stem)-uyan ustah (stem)-iiwan
You (pl) — me (stem)-uyāākw ustah (stem)-iiwāākw
You — us (stem)-uyakw ustah (stem)-iiwakw
You (pl) — us (stem)-uyakw ustah (stem)-iiwakw
Nāāwŭyan.          
You see me.  

Nāāwŭyāākw.            
You see me.  

Nāāwŭyakw.           
You or ye see me.   

ustah nāāwíiwan.      
You see me not.  

ustah nāāwíiwāākw.        
You (pl) see me not.  

ustah nāāwíiwakw.      
You or you (pl) see me not.

The Mahican conjunct has special forms other than inverse forms to express ‘he-me’ and ‘they-me’.

VTA Conjunct He-Me Forms

Participants Paradigm Negative Paradigm Plural participle
He — me (stem)-ii-t ustah (stem)-ii-kw (stem)-ii-chiik
Nāāwiit.            
He sees me.

Ustah nāāwiikw.       
He sees me not.

These ‘additional forms’ using the direction marker (ii) will be repeated further down in the charts for the conjunct inverse forms, where this form uses (ii) as an alternative to the form built with the (ukw) direction marker. The inanimate version of the form, it – me is formed as expected with (ukw) + (ah) The direction marker (ii) should still be considered an inverse marker for obviation marking purposes.

VTA Animate and Inanimate Subject Inverse Conjunct Mode

Paradigm Meaning
(stem)-ukwah He, it, or they — me
(stem)-ukwan He, it, or they — you
(stem)-ukwuk He, it, or they — him / her
(stem)-ukwakw He, it, or they — us (exclusive)
(stem)-ukwakw he,they;it,they — us (inclusive)
(stem)-ukwāākw He, it, or they — you (pl)
(stem)-ukwhtiit He, it, or they — them

Nāāwāāw vta see s.o.

Nāāwŭkwah.  
He saw me. 

Nāāwiit.    
He saw me. (alternate local inverse form)

Nāāwŭkwąąnah.  
If he saw me.  (with modal ending)


Nāāwŭkwan.         
He saw you.

Nāāwŭkwuk.         
He (obv) saw him.
Nāāwŭkwakw.           
He saw us.

Nāāwŭkwāākw.            
He saw you (pl).  

Nāāwŭkwhtiit.         
He (obv) saw them.  

Other examples
skwusāāw vta cut, carve s.o.

Skwusukwąąnah. 
If it cuts me. 
Aātanih-pāāsookwąąnah ngatāāw-anumθih.  
When he brought me I wanted to leave.  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)  

Nāāwíitah numawih-anumθih.  
If he sees me I am going to leave.   

Negative inverse mode conjunct forms are formed regularly:
(ukw)+(oo-w-ah) => ukoowah
(ukw)+(oo-w-uk) => ukookw => ukookw

The weak (u) in ukw often drops when preceded by long vowel.

VTA Negative Animate and Inanimate Subject Inverse Conjunct Mode

Paradigm Meaning
ustah (stem)-ukoowah He, it, or they — me not
ustah (stem)-ukoowan He, it, or they — you not
ustah (stem)-ukookw He, it, or they — him / her not
ustah (stem)-ukoowakw He, it, or they — us not (exclusive)
ustah (stem)-ukoowakw He, it, or they — us not (inclusive)
ustah (stem)-ukoowāākw He, it, or they — you (pl) not
ustah (stem)-ukwhtiikw He, it, or they — them not

Nāāwāāw vta see s.o.


Ustah nāāwŭkóowah or ustah nāāwiikw  
Ustah nāāwŭkóowan  
Ustah nāāwŭkookw  
Ustah nāāwŭkóowakw  
Ustah nāāwŭkóowāākw  
Ustah nāāwŭkwhtiikw  

Aātanih- ustah -kwiinąąkoowąąnah ngatāāw-anumθih.  
When he did not look for me I wanted to leave.  
(changed subjunctive conjunct)  
Ustah numawih-nąąw āātan- ustah - nukoowąąn.  
I am not going to talk to her when she doesn't talk to me.   
(changed conjunct)  

Ustah nāāwíikwah numawih-anumθih.  
If he does not see me I will want to leave.   

VTA Indefinite Subject Conjunct Mode

Indefinite subject forms for the VTA conjunct form regularly using (ukāā) followed by conjunct endings of the ‘an’ endings set with appropriate morphosyntatic modifications. These are the same endings used for the VAI conjunct.

ukāā + an endings (ukāā + y + an = ukayan)

As is the case for the indicative mode passives, the 3rd person forms are formed using the X form of the direct mode paradigm: (stem)-(umuk).

Paradigm Meaning
(stem)-ukayah I was —-
(stem)-ukayan You were —-
(stem)-ąąmuk He was —-
(stem)-ukayakw We (exclusive) were —-
(stem)-ukayakw We (inclusive) were —-
(stem)-ukayāākw You (pl) were —-
(stem)-ąąmuk They were —–
Nāāwŭkáyah.  
I was seen. 

Nāāwŭkáyan.                
You were seen.  

Nāāwąąmuk.                    
He was seen.  
Nāāwŭkáyakw.         
We were seen.  

Nāāwŭkáyāākw.          
You (pl) were seen  

Nāāwąąmuk                    
They were seen.  

Muskąąkayąąnah.   
If I am found.  

VTA Negative Indefinite Subject Conjunct Mode

Paradigm Meaning
ustah (stem)-ukāāwah I was not —-
ustah (stem)-ukāāwan You were not —-
ustah (stem)-ąąmookw He was not —-
ustah (stem)-ukāāwakw We (exclusive) were not —-
ustah (stem)-ukāāwakw We (inclusive) were not —-
ustah (stem)-ukāāwāākw You (pl) were not —-
ustah (stem)-ąąmookw They were not —–
Ustah nāāwŭkāāwah
Ustah nāāwŭkāāwan  
Ustah nāāwąąmookw
Ustah nāāwŭkāāwakw  
Ustah nāāwŭkāāwāākw  
Ustah nāāwąąmookw

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