VTA verbs have conjunct forms corresponding to Direct, Inverse, You-Me, Me-You and Passive construction patterns.
Conjunct forms do not use prefixes. The endings indicate who is participating in the action.
The VTA conjunct has the same four modes as other verb types:
Changed Conjunct (CC) VTA specific conjunct endings, with inital change (a => āā u=> āā) Changed Subjunctive Conjunct (CSC) mode adds (-ah) to the endings, with initial change. Subjunctive Conjunct Mode (CC) Adds (-ah) to regular conjunct endings but without initial change Participles VTA specific conjunct endings, with inital change
This chapter assumes one has become familiar with the various modes of the conjunct from the study of prior chapters. Examples of conjugated forms using all conjunct modes will be provided. There will be a separate chapter dedicated to the VTA participles however. The bulk of this chapter will be devoted to the manner of forming VTA conjunct forms.
VTA Direct Conjunct
The conjunct endings for VTAs in direct mode are called the ‘at’ endings. The (ąą) direction marker is found in all but the the 2nd person forms, and in all the negative conjunct forms.
|(stem)-ąąyah||I — him|
|(stem)-at||You — him|
|(stem)-ąąt||He or She — him|
|(stem)-ąąyakw||We — (exclusive) — him|
|(stem)-ąąyakw||We — (inclusive) — him|
|(stem)-ąąyāāk||We — (all) — him|
|(stem)-ąąyāākw||You (pl) — him|
|(stem)-áhtiit||They — him|
When used as conjunct verbs (not participles) these forms are the same for a sg and pl object (him, her, them).
Nāāwāāw vta see s.o.
nāāwąąyah nāāwat nāāwąąt nāāwąąyakw nāāwąąyāāk nāāwąąyāākw nāāwáhtiit x nāāwąąmuk
Nhah Mbąąn āātan-nąąt. I came when he was talking to him. (changed conjunct) Aātan-nāāwąąyah nāākmah wuθkiinúwuw. When I saw him he was a young man. (changed subjunctive conjunct) Wąąk mbah ngatāāw-nāāwąąyąąnah. I'll be back if I want to see him. (subjunctive conjunct)
Note that the 3rd person non participle conjunct forms do not use obviative or plural endings. The vta 3rd person conjunct forms can use plural and obviative endings however this only occurs when a conjunct form is used as a participle in which case the participle adds proximate plural endings if required to fit the plural status of the head of the participle when it is proximate but the endings will be obviative if the head of the participle is obviative.
The man loves her (obv), the one (obv) he was looking for. Niimanāāw wtahwąąnąąn kwiinawąąchih. The man (prox), he (prox) who loves her, is looking for her (obv). Niimanāāw ahwąąnąąt wkwinawąąn. The man loves them (pl obv), the ones (pl obv) he was with. Niimanāāw wtahwąąnąąwąą wiichāāwąąchii. The man (prox) is he who seeks them (prox), the loved ones (pl obv) Niimanāāw kwiinawąąt ahwąąnąąchii. Who is he who Redeems them - the ones who are elected by God? (HA21Q) Awāānii=k nah pahkwąąxkunąąt Pahtamawąąs nootnąąchii?
VTA Negative Conjunct Mode – Direct
|ustah (stem)-ąąwah||I — him not|
|ustah (stem)-ąąwat||You — him not|
|ustah (stem)-ąąkw||He or She — him not|
|ustah (stem)-ąąwakw||We — him not (exclusive)|
|ustah (stem)-ąąwakw||We — him not (inclusive)|
|ustah (stem)-ąąwāākw||You (pl) — him not|
|ustah (stem)-ąhtiikw||They — him not|
|ustah (stem)ąąmookw||— him not|
ustah nāāwąąwah ustah nāāwąąwat ustah nāāwąąkw ustah nāāwąąwakw ustah nāāwąąwāākw ustah nāāwahtiikw x ustah nāāwąąmookw
(stem)-(ąą) + (w) + (conjunct ending)
Note the 3rd person negatives (-ąąkw) and (-ąhtiikw)
(wk) word final clusters shift to =>(kw)
Nhah mbąąn āātan- ustah -nąąkw. I came when he was not talking to him. (changed conjunct) Aātan- ustah -kwiinawąąwah ustah nāākmah wuθkiinúwiiwih. When I did not seek him he was not a young man. (changed subjunctive conjunct) Wąąk=chih ustah mbąąw ngatāāw- ustah -nāāwąąwąąnah. I'll won't be be back if I do not want to see him. (subjunctive conjunct)
VTA Conjunct Local Me-You Forms
The You-Me and Me-You conjunct forms use the (ii) theme sign followed by the ‘an’ endings, the same ones used for the VAI conjunct.
Forms using the direction marker (ii) form the conjunct as if they were VAIs ending in (ii) and those using the marker (un) conjugate as if a consonant ending VAI.
|I —— you||(stem)-un-an||ustah (stem)-un-oowan|
|I —— you pl||(stem)-un-āākw||ustah (stem)-un-oowāākw|
|We —-you||(stem)-un-akw||ustah (stem)-un-oowakw|
|We —- you pl||(stem)-un-akw||ustah (stem)-un-oowakw|
Nāāwŭnan. I see you. Nāāwŭnāākw. I see you (pl). Nāāwŭnakw. We see you or you (pl). Ustah nāāwŭnóowan. I see you not. Ustah nāāwŭnóowāākw. I see you (pl) not. Ustah nāāwŭnóowakw We see you or you (pl) not. Nhah pąąn āātan-nāāwunan. He came when I saw you. (changed conjunct) Aātan-nāāwunāākwah kooθkiinuwihmah. When I saw you (pl), you (pl) were young men. (changed subjunctive conjunct) Wąąk nhah mbąąnāānah ngátāāw-nāāwŭnakwah. We'll be back if we want to see you. (subjunctive)
VTA Conjunct Local You-Me Forms
The direction marker (ii) requires an intercalated (y) before the vowel initial conjunct endings (an) (akw) and (āākw). The vowels shift as usual:
(ii) + (y) + (an) => (uyan)
|You — me||(stem)-uyan||ustah (stem)-iiwan|
|You (pl) — me||(stem)-uyāākw||ustah (stem)-iiwāākw|
|You — us||(stem)-uyakw||ustah (stem)-iiwakw|
|You (pl) — us||(stem)-uyakw||ustah (stem)-iiwakw|
Nāāwŭyan. You see me. Nāāwŭyāākw. You see me. Nāāwŭyakw. You or ye see me. ustah nāāwíiwan. You see me not. ustah nāāwíiwāākw. You (pl) see me not. ustah nāāwíiwakw. You or you (pl) see me not.
The Mahican conjunct has special forms other than inverse forms to express ‘he-me’ and ‘they-me’.
VTA Conjunct He-Me Forms
|Participants||Paradigm||Negative Paradigm||Plural participle|
|He — me||(stem)-ii-t||ustah (stem)-ii-kw||(stem)-ii-chiik|
Nāāwiit. He sees me. Ustah nāāwiikw. He sees me not.
These ‘additional forms’ using the direction marker (ii) will be repeated further down in the charts for the conjunct inverse forms, where this form uses (ii) as an alternative to the form built with the (ukw) direction marker. The inanimate version of the form, it – me is formed as expected with (ukw) + (ah) The direction marker (ii) should still be considered an inverse marker for obviation marking purposes.
VTA Animate and Inanimate Subject Inverse Conjunct Mode
|(stem)-ukwah||He, it, or they — me|
|(stem)-ukwan||He, it, or they — you|
|(stem)-ukwuk||He, it, or they — him / her|
|(stem)-ukwakw||He, it, or they — us (exclusive)|
|(stem)-ukwakw||he,they;it,they — us (inclusive)|
|(stem)-ukwāākw||He, it, or they — you (pl)|
|(stem)-ukwhtiit||He, it, or they — them|
Nāāwāāw vta see s.o.
Nāāwŭkwah. He saw me. Nāāwiit. He saw me. (alternate local inverse form) Nāāwŭkwąąnah. If he saw me. (with modal ending) Nāāwŭkwan. He saw you. Nāāwŭkwuk. He (obv) saw him. Nāāwŭkwakw. He saw us. Nāāwŭkwāākw. He saw you (pl). Nāāwŭkwhtiit. He (obv) saw them.
skwusāāw vta cut, carve s.o.
Skwusukwąąnah. If it cuts me. Aātanih-pāāsookwąąnah ngatāāw-anumθih. When he brought me I wanted to leave. (changed subjunctive conjunct) Nāāwíitah numawih-anumθih. If he sees me I am going to leave.
Negative inverse mode conjunct forms are formed regularly:
(ukw)+(oo-w-ah) => ukoowah
(ukw)+(oo-w-uk) => ukookw => ukookw
The weak (u) in ukw often drops when preceded by long vowel.
VTA Negative Animate and Inanimate Subject Inverse Conjunct Mode
|ustah (stem)-ukoowah||He, it, or they — me not|
|ustah (stem)-ukoowan||He, it, or they — you not|
|ustah (stem)-ukookw||He, it, or they — him / her not|
|ustah (stem)-ukoowakw||He, it, or they — us not (exclusive)|
|ustah (stem)-ukoowakw||He, it, or they — us not (inclusive)|
|ustah (stem)-ukoowāākw||He, it, or they — you (pl) not|
|ustah (stem)-ukwhtiikw||He, it, or they — them not|
Nāāwāāw vta see s.o.
Ustah nāāwŭkóowah or ustah nāāwiikw Ustah nāāwŭkóowan Ustah nāāwŭkookw Ustah nāāwŭkóowakw Ustah nāāwŭkóowāākw Ustah nāāwŭkwhtiikw Aātanih- ustah -kwiinąąkoowąąnah ngatāāw-anumθih. When he did not look for me I wanted to leave. (changed subjunctive conjunct) Ustah numawih-nąąw āātan- ustah - nukoowąąn. I am not going to talk to her when she doesn't talk to me. (changed conjunct) Ustah nāāwíikwah numawih-anumθih. If he does not see me I will want to leave.
VTA Indefinite Subject Conjunct Mode
Indefinite subject forms for the VTA conjunct form regularly using (ukāā) followed by conjunct endings of the ‘an’ endings set with appropriate morphosyntatic modifications. These are the same endings used for the VAI conjunct.
ukāā + an endings (ukāā + y + an = ukayan)
As is the case for the indicative mode passives, the 3rd person forms are formed using the X form of the direct mode paradigm: (stem)-(umuk).
|(stem)-ukayah||I was —-|
|(stem)-ukayan||You were —-|
|(stem)-ąąmuk||He was —-|
|(stem)-ukayakw||We (exclusive) were —-|
|(stem)-ukayakw||We (inclusive) were —-|
|(stem)-ukayāākw||You (pl) were —-|
|(stem)-ąąmuk||They were —–|
Nāāwŭkáyah. I was seen. Nāāwŭkáyan. You were seen. Nāāwąąmuk. He was seen. Nāāwŭkáyakw. We were seen. Nāāwŭkáyāākw. You (pl) were seen Nāāwąąmuk They were seen. Muskąąkayąąnah. If I am found.
VTA Negative Indefinite Subject Conjunct Mode
|ustah (stem)-ukāāwah||I was not —-|
|ustah (stem)-ukāāwan||You were not —-|
|ustah (stem)-ąąmookw||He was not —-|
|ustah (stem)-ukāāwakw||We (exclusive) were not —-|
|ustah (stem)-ukāāwakw||We (inclusive) were not —-|
|ustah (stem)-ukāāwāākw||You (pl) were not —-|
|ustah (stem)-ąąmookw||They were not —–|
Ustah nāāwŭkāāwah Ustah nāāwŭkāāwan Ustah nāāwąąmookw Ustah nāāwŭkāāwakw Ustah nāāwŭkāāwāākw Ustah nāāwąąmookw