Mahican VTA Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative

 

Sometimes a phrase involving a TA verb will use the inanimate subject ‘it‘.
For example: The rock killed him.

The inverse mode is used to accomplish this, and both objective and absolute forms can be constructed.

The objective forms are constructed by adding n endings to the direction marker ukw. These n ending inverse forms are morphologically identical to the forms used for the inverse subordinative mode.
(stem) + (ukw) + (n endings)

VTA Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative Objective Forms

Noun Optional Construction

Paradigm Meaning
nu-(stem)-ukwun it — me
ku-(stem)-ukwun it — you
wu-(stem)-ukwun it — him / her
nu-(stem)-ukwunāānah it — us (exclusive)
nu-(stem)-ukwunāānookw it — us all (exclusive)
ku-(stem)-ukwunāānah it — us (inclusive)
ku-(stem)-ukwunāānookw it — us all (inclusive)
ku-(stem)-ukwunāāwah it — you (pl)
wu-(stem)-ukwunāāwah it — them

Examples:
nahnāāw vta kill s.o.
skwusāāw vta cut, carve s.o.


     Nahnkwun. 
	It killed me.

	Kunahnkwunāāwah.  
	It killed you (pl).

	Aθun wunahnkwun. 
	The rock, it killed him.

     Xiikan ksukwusookwunāānah.
     The knife cut us. (contraction -usw-ukw to -usookw)

	Aθun kunahnkwun. 
	The rock, it killed you.

	Aθun wunahnkwunāāwah. 
	The rock killed them.

     Nsukwusookwun.  
	It cuts me.
	(nu)(sukw-usw)(ukw)(un)

Negative Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative Objective Forms

These are formed as follows:
(stem)-(ukw)-(oow)-n endings

VTA Negative Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative Objective Forms

Noun Optional Construction

Paradigm Meaning
ustah nu-(stem)-ukoowun it — me not
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowun it — you not
ustah wu-(stem)-ukoowun it — him / her not
ustah nu-(stem)-ukoowunāānah it — us not(exclusive)
ustah nu-(stem)-ukoowunāānookw it — us all not(exclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowunāānah it — us not (inclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowunāānookw it — us all not (inclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowunāāwah it — you (pl) not
ustah wu-(stem)-ukoowunāāwah it — them not
        Ustah nahnkóowun. 
	It didn't kill me.

	Ustah knahnkóowun. 
	It killed you not.

	Ustah xáchih-aθún wunahnkóowun. 
	The big rock killed him not

	Xáchih-aθún ustah  kumawih-nahnkóowun.
	The big rock, it will not kill you.

	Xiikan ustah nsukwusookoowun.
	The knife it cut me not.

	Xiikan piht āāt ustah nsukwusookoowunāānah. 
	The knife might not cut us.

	Xiikan usta=ch ksukwusookoowunāāwah.
	The knife will not cut you (pl). 

	Xáchih-aθún ustah wunahnkoowunāāwah.
	The big rock killed them not.

 

Plural Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative Objective Forms

(stem)-(ukw)-(n endings, plurals)

VTA Plural Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative Objective Forms

Noun Optional Construction

Paradigm Meaning
nu-(stem)-ukwunah they — me
ku-(stem)-ukwunah they — you
wu-(stem)-ukwunah they — him / her
nu-(stem)-ukwunāānąąn they — us (exclusive)
nu-(stem)-ukwunāānookw they — us all (exclusive)
ku-(stem)-ukwunāānąąn they — us (inclusive)
ku-(stem)-ukwunāānookw they — us all (inclusive)
ku-(stem)-ukwunāāwąąn they — you (pl)
wu-(stem)-ukwunāāwąąn they — them
Kŭnahnkwúnah.
They (inanimate) killed you.

Aθúnan wŭnahnkwúnah.
The rocks they killed him

Xáchih-aθúnan kunahnukwúnah.
The big rocks killed you.

Xáchih-aθúnan wunahnkwunāāwah.
The big rocks killed them.

Nsukwusookwunah.
They cut me.

 

Negative Plural Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative Objective Forms

(stem)-(ukw)-(oow)-(n endings, plurals)

VTA Negative Inanimate Plural Subject Inverse Indicative Objective Forms

Noun Optional Construction

Paradigm Meaning
ustah nu-(stem)-ukoowunah they — me not
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowunah they — you not
ustah wu-(stem)-ukoowunah they — him / her not
ustah nu-(stem)-ukoowunāānąąn they — us not(exclusive)
ustah nu-(stem)-ukoowunāānookw they — us all not(exclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowunāānąąn they — us not (inclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowunāānookw they — us all not (inclusive)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowunāāwąąn they — you (pl) not
ustah wu-(stem)-ukoowunāāwąąn they — them not
Ustah kunahnukóowunah.
They killed you not.

Xiikan ustah wsukwusookoowunah. 
The knives did not cut him. 

 

Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative Absolute Forms

(Noun required construction)
(stem)-(ukw)-(m endings)

 

VTA Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative Absolute Forms

Noun Required Construction

Paradigm Meaning
nu-(stem)-ukw a, some noun(s) — me
ku-(stem)-ukw a, some noun(s) — you
—-(stem)-ukw* a, some noun(s) — him
nu-(stem)-ukóhnah a, some noun(s) — us (excl)
nu-(stem)-ukóhnookw a, some noun(s) — us all (excl)
ku-(stem)-ukóhnah a, some noun(s) — us (incl)
ku-(stem)-ukóhnookw a, some noun(s) — us all (incl)
ku-(stem)-ukóhmah a, some noun(s) — you (pl)
—-(stem)-ukāāk a, some noun(s) — them

* The third person subject forms may also be used for an animate subject.
The rest of this set is used only for inanimate absolute subjects

Kunahnukw kāākway.
Something killed you.

Xáchih-aθún anih-nahnukw.
A big rock killed him.

Xáchih-aθún ndunih-nahnukw.
A big rock killed me.

Kiinih-xiikan nsukwusookw. 
A sharp knife cut me. 

Kiinih-xiikan skwusookw. 
A sharp knife cut him. 

Aθúnan ąąm kunahnukw.
Some rocks could kill you.
Mchih-miitθuwąąkan nahnkāāk.
Some bad food killed them.


Aθunan nsukwusookohnah..
Some rocks cut us.

Kuyāāwah xiikan ksukwusookohmah?
Did the knife cut you (pl)?

 

Negative Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative Absolute Forms

(stem)-(ukw)-(oowii)-(m endings)

VTA Negative Inanimate Subject Inverse Indicative Absolute Forms

Noun Required Construction

Paradigm Meaning
ustah nu-(stem)-ukoow a, some noun(s) — me not
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoow a, some noun(s) — you not
ustah —-(stem)-ukwoowih a, some noun(s) — him not
ustah nu-(stem)-ukoowíhnah a, some noun(s) — us not (excl)
ustah nu-(stem)-ukoowíhnookw a, some noun(s) — us all not (excl)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowíhnah a, some noun(s) — us not (incl)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowíhnookw a, some noun(s) — us all not (incl)
ustah ku-(stem)-ukoowíhmah a, some noun(s) — you (pl) not
ustah —-(stem)-ukoowíik a, some noun(s) — them not

Negative forms in inverse modes are interchangeable as far as use for objective and absolute sets are concerned. Otherwise said, negatives inverse forms do not specify for a objective versus absolute subject.

The 3rd forms of this set may also be used for an animate subject

Usta=ch kunahnkóow mtukwuθ.
A stick will kill you not.

Xáchih-aθun ustah anih-nahnkóowih.
A big rock killed him not.

Xáchih-aθunan ustah ndunih-nahnkóow.
Big rocks did not kill me.

Aθúnan ustah kŭnahnkóow.
Some rocks killed you not.

Xiikan usta=ch ksukwusookoowihnah.
A knife won't cut us.


Kiinih-aθún ustah nahnkoowíik.
A sharp rock killed them not.

Ustah kāākway nsukwusookoow.
Nothing cut me.


Mŭnāāwąąkan-chih kŭnahnkoow.
 Drinking won't kill you

 

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