Mahican VII Changed Conjunct

This mode is used when the action of the secondary clause co-occurs simultaneously with the action of the main clause.

Preverbs often introduce the verbs in this mode, because the meaning of the preverb sets up the phrase in a way that a conjunct sub-phrase of this mode is needed. Some verbs incorporate the preverb as a root into the verb stem and consequently use this conjunct mode without a preverb.

The changed conjunct mode uses initial change plus the conjunct endings.

VII Conjunct Endings (Vowel ending stems)

Conjugation paradigm Meaning
(stem)-(k) 3rd sg: it, them —
Negative Conjugation paradigm Meaning
Ustah (stem)-(kw) 3rd sg: it, them —- not

Example using ksutāāw vii it is warm with the preverb āānih-– because

Aānih-ksutāāk.               
Because it is warm. (Because they are warm).


Ustah āānih-ksutāākw.      
Because it is not warm.  Because they are not warm.  

More examples using the preverb āānih-

āānih pv because, in the way it… or how it …

Wŭnút āānih-mxāāk.   
It is pretty because it is big.  

Wunut āānih- ustah -mxahtāāk.   
Its pretty because it is not snowing a lot.  
Tahaθuw āānih-mxahtāāk.  
It is cold because it is snowing a lot.  

tahaθuw vii it is cold  

Mxih wŭnút āānih-wunahkamāāk.   
It is very good because it is a good day.  
(wunahkamāāw vii be a good day)   

Ustah wunahkamāāwih āānih- ustah mxahtāākw.   
It is not a good day because it is not snowing a lot..  

Examples using the preverb āātan-

āātan-– when or where

Ustah ahtāāwih āātan-mxahtāāk.  
It wasn't there when it snowed a lot.   

VIIs ending in consonants interact phonologically with the conjunct endings slightly differently than vowel ending verb stems.

VII Conjunct (Consonant ending stems)

Stem type Final ending Example End result
(stem-n)+(k) (stem-k) chiinxun+k chiinxuk
(stem-at)+(k) (stem-ahk) wuniipookwat+k wāāniipookwahkw
(stem-ut)+(k) (stem-ihk) wunut+k wāānihk

chiinxun vii makes noise, sound (John3.8)

Chiinxun.
It makes noise.

Chiinxunah.
They make noise.

Aānih-chiinxuk. 
Because it makes noise.  Because they make noise.

Nih wuniipookwat? 
Does it taste good?  Do they taste good? 

Aānih-wuniipookwahk.
Because it is tastes good. Because they taste good. 

Wunut. 
It is nice. 

Wunutah. 
They are nice. 

Aānih-wunihk. 
Because it is nice.  Because they are nice. 

VII Negative Conjunct (Consonant ending stems)

singular
ustah (stem)-ookw

Examples using anaxun vii be empty ; wuniipookwat vii taste good ; anut vii be rotten

Aānih-anaxuk.  
Because it is empty.  Because they are empty.  

Ustah āānih-anaxunookw.     
Because it is not empty.  Because they are not empty.  

Aānih-wuniipookwahk. 
Because it tastes good.  Because they taste good.  

Ustah āānih-wuniipookwatookw.     
Because it does not taste good.

Aānih-aníhk          
Because it rotted.  Because they rotted. 


Ustah āānih-anútookw         
Because it, they rotted not.        

Examples using the preverb āātan-– when or where

Kiipihnāān āātan-ksáxuk.  
They (inan.) fall when its windy.  

Wuláhkamāāw āātanih- ustah -sookŭnąąnookw.   
When it is not raining its a nice day.  

 

VIIs with unstable stems

VIIs with Unstable Stems Ending in -ąą

Some VIIs with stems ending in -ąą shift this vowel to -āā before 3rd person neutral mode w endings.

Neutral mode negative constructs also cause the vowel to shift to -āā-.

The true stem vowel -ąą- is used before conjunct endings.

These verb stems are referred to as ‘unstable’ because of this shift in the stem ending vowel.

Stable stems exist which end in -āā but these stems use the same vowel in all verb forms.

Mode Stem vowel Ending added Negatives
Indic Indep Sg (stem-ąą) (stem-āāw) ustah (stem-āāwih)
Indic Indep Pl (stem-ąą) (stem-āāwan*) ustah (stem-āāwiin**)
Conjunct (stem-ąą) (stem-ąąk) ustah (stem-ąąkw)

*contracts to āān
**contracted from āāwiiwan
 

VII Unstable Stems Ending in (ii)

Some VIIs listed as ending in (-uw) actually have stems ending in (ii):

Such stems morph the (ii) to (u) when a 3rd person ‘’w ending’‘ is added.

The true stem vowel (-ii) is used before conjunct endings and in neutral mode negative constructs. This behavior differs from the unstable (ąą) stems.

Endings type Inflection Result Negatives
(stem-ii) + indic mode endings (stem-uw) ustah (stem-iiwih)
(stem-ii) + plural indic mode endings (stem-uwan) ustah (stem-iiwiin)
(stem-ii) + conjunct endings (stem-iik) ustah (stem-iikw)

Examples:

Pasíhnāāw.  
It is split in two.   

Ustah wunutóowih āānih-pasíhnąąk.   
Its not pretty because it split in two.  
(vii's ending in -ihnāāw have unstable stems in -ąą)  



Θookahnāāw.   
It spilled.  

Ustah wunutoowih āānih-θookahnąąk.   
It is no good because it spilled.  

Kahnah niipan chąąchupāāyuwan.   
My arrows really are sharp.

chąąchupāāyuw vii-ii be sharp, pointed (s110)

Stah niipan chąąchupāāyiiwiin. 
My arrows are not sharp. (s33)

Wunut āānih- niipan -chąąchupāāyiik. 
It is good that my arrows are sharp. 

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