Review of the four types of verbs:
There are four basic verb types, classified according to gender, as we discussed in an earlier chapter. Each verb type conjugates by adding prefixes and suffixes to a verb stem. Conjugating verbs will be discussed later. The examples which follow are intended only to familiarize the reader with the four main verb types and illustrate the way the verbs contain information about the subject and object.
Inanimate Subject (No object) = VII
Máxkāāyuw. It red. It is red. Mbúy máxkāāyuw. Water, it red. The water is red. Áhtāāw. It is there. (It there) Nahah sookunąąn. It is raining way there.
Animate Subject (No object) = VAI
Kawíiw He/she is sleeping. literally 'He sleeps' Apúw. He is there ('he' means s.t. or s.o. animate)
Inanimate Object (animate subject) = VTI
Wunāāmun. He sees it. wu-(nāām)-un Kwąąm wunāāmun miichŭwąąkan. Yes he sees it, the food. (miichŭwáakan is an inanimate noun)
Animate Object (animate subject) = VTA
Wŭnāāwąąn. He sees him. wu-(nāāw)-ąą-w-an Wąąk wŭnāāwąąn nah niimanāāw.. Again, he saw him, that man. He saw that man again.
Verbs may stand alone without nouns as in the above examples because the subject and object as the case may be are included in the verb.
Personal pronouns were discussed for use with noun possession. They may be used with verbs, in which case they are technically redundant in most cases, but they can give a certain rhythm to the phrase and may give extra emphasis and in some cases provide clarity to the subject of a verb.
|1st person singular (1st sg or 1s)||nuyah||me,I|
|2nd person singular (2nd sg or 2s)||kuyah||you, thee|
|3rd person singular (3rd sg or 3s)||nāākmah||him,her ; he,she|
|1st person plural (1st pl or 1p)||nuyāānah||us,we (exclusive)|
|1st person collective plural (1st pl or 1p)||nuyāānookw||us,we (exclusive collective)|
|1+2 person plural (1+2 pl or 12p)||kuyāānah||us,we (inclusive)|
|1+2 person collective plural (1+2 pl or 12p)||kuyāānookw||us,we (inclusive collective)|
|2nd person plural (2nd pl or 2p)||kuyāāwah||you (pl)|
|3rd person plural (3rd pl or 3p)
|Indefinite subject (or X)||X||someone, something, some group|
As each verb type is explained, it will be helpful to know this list of pronouns and their abbreviations. Verb conjugation charts always follow this basic order. Details of how to conjugate verbs in all verb classes will be the object of the next several chapters.
The 4 versions of “we” …
Nih ndapíhnah. We are here. Us, the ones talking to you (excluding the listener) ... are here. Nih ndapihnookw.. We are all here. Us, all of us not including you, are here. Nih ktapíhnah. We are here. Us, you and I (including the listener) ... are here. Nih ktapihnookw. We are all here. Us, all of us including you are here.
Preverbs (PVs) function much the same way as prenouns. Preverbs are precede the verb and the ‘preverb-verb compound stem’ functions like one newly created big word. Prefixes, if any, are added to the beginning of the preverb part of the compound word and endings are added onto the very end of it.
Preverbs are listed in the dictionary in a neutral, non-inflected form. Personal prefixes may trigger beginning pattern phonology rules affecting the preverb instead of the initial verb root. In some cases this changes things around quite a bit. For this reason I will often provide examples of verb forms with and without preverbs.
Wunāāwąąn. He sees him. vs Oonih-nāāwąąn. He sees him well. wunih- pv unable to prefix-(preverb)-(verb)-suffix (wu)-(wunih)-(nāāw)-(ąąwan)
Note how the (wu) prefix attaches to the pv and not to the verb stem
The beginning pattern for the pv wunih– (wu + wu—- = oo—-) applies
Wunāāmun. He sees it. vs Wkátāāw-nāāmun He wants to see it katāāw- pv want, intend to prefix-(preverb)-(verb)-suffix wu-(katāāw)-(nāām)-un
Extra words, including other pv’s, may be inserted between the pv and the verb, forming an expanded preverb-verb compound stem.
Kátāāw-sookunąąn? Is it going to snow? Ustah ootāānāāk ngiisih-mawih-míitsiiw. I am not able to go eat in town. nu-(kiisih)-(mawih)-(verb)-ii(wii) mawih pv go to (do something) Wumawih-nāāwąąn. He is going to see him.