Enclitics are short words that are added to the end of another word, usually the first word of a phrase or a clause, which add meaning to the entire phrase.
The = symbol is used to link enclitics to other words.
An example of an enclitic is the word =chih which adds the meaning of ‘in the future’ to the phrase.
Wąąk=chih nuyah. Also shall I.
Several enclitics may be joined to one word, in which case they are always in the same order.
Piht=k=āāt sookŭnąąn. Well perhaps it is raining.
Enclitics attach to words according to a relatively complex set of rules such that both the host word and the enclitic may undergo modifications. These rules will be explained in detail as each enclitic is described.
The Future Tense Enclitic
The enclitic =chih adds the meaning of future time to a phrase. It is added to the first word in the phrase or sub-phrase as a rule.
Wąąk=chih ... Also shall ... Ndan=chih ... And shall ... Kāākway=chih ... What shall ... Niik=chih ... Those shall ...
Others enclitics may precede =chih but =>chih is never followed by another enclitic.
When =chih is added to a word ending in a vowel it shortens to =ch. Mahican words ending in vowels undergo modifications based on traditional sound rules. These rules must be reversed in some cases before adding an enclitic.
Mahican adds h to word final vowels, and shortens the vowel if the final vowel is long. Adding an enclitic to such words removes the final h and restores the original long vowel for those words where it was shortened.
A reference table summarizing the specifics of final vowels of common words can be found at the end of this chapter.
Case #1 final -ah reverts to -āā
A final vowel -āā shortened to -ah reverts to -āā before an enclitic.
This occurs with verb stems ending in āā conjugated using the m endings.
Anahkāāw vai work, do Ndanahhkah. I am working. (ndanahkāā + h => ndanahkah) Ndanahkāā=ch. I will be working. (ndanahkāā + chih => ndanahkāā=ch)
This also occurs with the conjunct modal ending –-ah shortened from -āā and is used in the changed subjunctive conjunct and the subjunctive conjunct.
Ahankayąąnah. If I am working. Anahkayąąnāā=ch. If I shall be working. Wąąpan. It is dawn. Wąąpkah. When it is dawn. Wąąpkāā=ch ndanahkah. I will work tomorrow.
Case #2 final -ah reverts to -ąą
A final vowel -ąą shortened to -ah reverts back to -ąą before an enclitic.
This occurs with verb stems ending in ąą conjugated using the m endings.
aniitahāāw vai-ąą think Nduniitahah. I think. (nduniitahąą + h => nduniitahah) Nduniitahąą=ch. I will think. (nduniitahąą + chih => nduniitahąą=ch)
Certain words ending in -ah revert to ąą
kahnah pc really kahnąą=ch really shall nāākmah pr he, him nāākmąą=ch he shall nuyāānah pr we (exclusive) nuyāānąą=ch we shall kuyāānah pr we (inclusive) kuyāānąą=ch we shall kuyāāwah pr you (pl) kuyāāwąą=ch you shall nāākmāāwah pr they, them nāākmāāwąą=ch they shall
The following inflected forms ending in -ahalso revert to to ąą before an enclitic:
The 1st person conjunct ending -ąąn shortens to -ah when not followed by an ending or an enclitic and becomes -ąą before an enclitic.
Aānahkayah. That I work. Aānahkayąą=ch. That I will work.
The ąą of 1st plural verb and possessed noun endings :
(prefix)(verb stem)hnąą Ndanahkahnah. We work. Ndanahkahnąą=ch. We will work.
(prefix)(verb stem)unāānąą Ngwiinamunāānah. We are looking for it. Ngwiinamunāānąą=ch. We will look for it.
(prefix)(verb stem)(direction marker)wunąą Ngwiinawąąnah. We are looking for him. Ngwiinawąąnąą=ch. We will be looking for him. Ngwiinąąkoonah. He is looking for us. Ngwiinąąkoonąą=ch. He will be looking for us.
(prefix)(noun stem)unąą Ndąąθoonŭnah wkwiinamun. He is looking for our hat. Ndąąθoonŭnąą=ch wkwiinamun. He will be looking for our hat.
The ąą of 2nd plural verb and possessed noun endings:
ku(verb stem)hmąą Ktanahkahmah. You (pl) work. Ktanahkahmąą=ch. You (pl) will work.
ku(prefix)(verb stem)unāāwąą Kwiinamunāāwah. You (pl) are looking for it. Kwiinamunāāwąą=ch. You (pl) will look for it.
ku(verb stem)(direction marker)wąą Kwiinawąąwah. You (pl) are looking for him. Kwiinawąąwąą=ch. You (pl) will be looking for him. Kwiinąąkoowah. He is looking for you (pl). Kwiinąąkoowąą=ch. He will be looking for you (pl).
(ku)(noun stem)uwąą Ktąąθoonŭwah wkwiinamun. He is looking for your (pl) hat. Ktąąθoonŭwąą=ch wkwiinamun. He will be looking for your (pl) hat.
The ąą of 3rd plural verb and possessed noun endings :
wu(prefix)(verb stem)unāāwąą Wkwiinamunāāwah. They are looking for it. Wkwiinamunāāwąą=ch. They will look for it.
(wu)(noun stem)uwąą Wtąąθoonŭwah wkwiinamun. He is looking for their hat. Wtąąθoonŭwąą=ch wkwiinamun. He will be looking for their hat.
Case #3 -ih reverts to -ii
A final vowel -ii shortened to -ih reverts to -ii before an enclitic
mohchih certainly mohchii=ch certainly shall māāwih all māāwii=ch all shall knih then kunii=ch then will anih so wtunii=ch-tpuθtawąąn that he will obey him
Case #4 Particles with or without a final -ih revert to -ii or add -ii if necessary
psukw only,but psukwii=ch but shall tąąn what, where, how tąąnii=ch how will awāān who awāānii=ch anyone shall
Case #5 Short vowel Finals
Particles and pronouns that have only one syllable or only one accented syllable drop the h before and enclitic without modifying the vowel, which remains short.
nah that (animate) na=ch that shall nuyah I,me nuya=ch I shall ustah not usta=ch not in the the future noh here no=ch here shall nih that (inanimate) nu=ch that will
Most words ending in -ih revert to -ii before an enclitic, but nih drop the h and the vowel shifts to u.
Case #6 Grammatically Necessary Final -h
Some words use a structurally relevant final h that is different from a vowel shortening final h. Structural final h does not drop before an enclitic. In English one may omit the final g of a word like ‘doing’ without loss of meaning But the final g of the word “dog” is grammatically necessary.
Obviatives ending in -ah do not lose the h before an enclitic because the h is part of the ending and not a shortened final vowel
Plural obviatives that have contracted to ąą do not shorten and do not add a final h
Imperatives ending in ah or ih do not lose the h before an enclitic
Plural inanimate endings in -ah after n endings do not lose the h before an enclitic
Other endings ending in h retain the final h such as -ih iterative, -ih conjunct inanimate plural, ih conjunct sg obviative.
The Back Referencing Enclitic
The enclitic =kah is used to refer back to something said earlier. (Quinn; Particles)
It is way of marking a phrase as a comment, answer or clarification about something previously mentioned. It may be used to launch a topic that was triggered by the previous topic.
Possible translations could include, “well, so, but, as a matter of fact, by the way, as far as that is concerned, speaking of that.”
This particle takes the form =kah after a consonant.
Kāākway=kah What (follow up question) uhch=kah yet additionally, even so nan=kah nih same, similar to (compared to another argument in the discourse); continues, continues to be (compared to another argument in the discourse) (HA13) all the same, in the same manner (Sw610)
When added to a word ending in a vowel, it shortens to =k.
nih this (inanimate) Nu=k well this Tąąn How, what Tąąnii=k Well how Awāān who Awāānii=k well who Kāāchih now Kāāchii=k well now Noonoh Now Noonoo=k well now (JE) Usta=k well not Nuya=k ndakihnah. Well I am in a hurry. (Sw378-j140) Nāākmąą=k wchiimąąw kāākway. Well he is called something. Name. (Sw303)(rs)
May only be followed by =chih, =ąąm and =āāt. All other enclitis precede =kah
It takes the form =k= when followed by =ąąm or =āāt.
Tąąnii=k=āāt I don't know. lit. well how should (idiom) Piht=k=āāt well perhaps (s109) Piht=k=ąąm well could perhaps (s109) Tāāpii=k=ąąm=chih. So it will and should be sufficient. usta=k=ąąm well should not ahch=k=ąąm well yet should (P mlh35) Pumuθuw=k=āāt. Well perhaps he’s going by foot. (s72)
Takes the form =kāā= when followed by =ch
Piht=kāā=ch pxąąn. Well could perhaps be still snowing. (s109) Nu=kāā=ch... Well this shall... (HA38) Kāākway=kāā=ch... So what will... (Watts3)
The Rebuttal Enclitic
The enclitic =t is used to imply that what is being said is more pertinent or salient than the preceding idea. The new information introduced by =t provides an alternative, or a new take on the situation.
English translations could include things like, “but,” “rather,” “alternatively,” “no,” or “instead.”
No instances of use after a consonant were found in Mahican texts.
When added to a word ending in a vowel, it has the form =t.
mohchii=t but surely (HA83) psukwii=t mohchih anāāyuw. But no, really it is so. (Sw20) iinhāā=t or rather (P mlh30)
It takes the form =tāā when directly followed by =ch or =kāā=.
tąą=kāā=ch knąątumun? So when will you be getting it? (s148) psukwii=tāā=ch unless shall, but rather will (Matt5.18) Kahnąą=tāā=ch. But certainly shall … (Goddard 2008)
The Contrasting Enclitic
The enclitic =tkih is used to introduce contrasting, dissenting or contradictory viewpoints.
English translations could include things like, “however,” “conversely,” or “on the other hand.”
It takes the form =tkih after a vowel
psukwii=tkih but however (HA56) usta=tkih no however (HA90) tāāpii=ha=tkih adequate on the other hand (HA96) nah=tkih he on the other hand (John3.18) psukwii=tkih but conversely (John3.21) Tąąnii=tkih kuyah? How are you? (Sw147-31av) Uwa=tkih kiisāāθpuw. This one’s ready. (Sw175) Tąąnii=tkih noh. I don’t know that (Sw244-93av) Tha=tkih ktayoom? So where is your son? (Sw68) (ha=tkih) Awāānii=tkih nah? Who is that? (Sw71av) kāākwāā=tkih nuh? What is this? (Sw31av) Chiinii=tkih kmoothan. Don't be stealing (Sw155av)
It takes the form =tk= before =ąąm and =āāt:
psukwii=tk=ąąm but would on the other hand (Matt5.19) nu=tk=ąąm this would however (s139)
It takes the =tkii= before =ch or before =k:
Nuya=tkii=ch (Ps5.4) Thah=tkii=k nguk? Well where on the other hand is my mother? (Sw68,13av)
The Focus Enclitic
The enclitic =hah adds focus to words. It is similar to the way English adds the word “there” to bring focus to a word. I’d like that one. I’d like that one there.
It takes the form =hah after a word ending in a consonant.
Spamuk=hah noom. I have come from up there. Ustah ktayŭnohkwāāwun=hah. You are not looking at him there. (s120)
It takes the form =ha= =k=
tāāpii=ha=tkih sufficient here on the other hand (HA96) Tąąnii=ha=tkih noh kiitąąpaxkwāāw? Where's your housekeeper? (Sw17-93av)
The following particles may standalone or may be attached as enclitics.
Their presence in strings of several enclitics prove their use as enclitics because the word is embedded amongst several enclitics or because the preceding enclitic has a form inconsistent with a word ending enclitic.
The particle =ąąm adds the means of “could, would, should, can, or may” to the phrase.
piht=k=ąąm well could perhaps (s109) would be piht=kah ąąm if ąąm was not an enclitic. Tāāpii=k=ąąm=chih So it will and should be sufficient. ąąch=k=ąąm yet
The particle =āāt adds the means of uncertainty to the phrase. It is often translated as “perhaps” or “maybe”
Pumuθuw=k=āāt. Well perhaps he’s going by foot. (s72) Wawiich=k=āāt niimanāāw kmoot I suppose a man stole it (Sw15av) piht=k=āāt well perhaps maybe (s109) Piht=kāā=ch pxąąn. Well could perhaps be still snowing. (s109)
These particles may also be used as stand-alone words:
ustah ąąm nah ąąm that (anim) should nih ąąm that (inanim) should māāwih āāt perhaps all